R. Keith Reeves

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Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development(More)
Multiple studies suggest that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are depleted and dysfunctional during human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection, but little is known about pDCs in the gut-the primary site of virus replication. Here, we show that during SIV infection, pDCs were reduced 3--fold in the circulation and(More)
BACKGROUND Human killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) play a critical role in governing the immune response to neoplastic and infectious disease. Rhesus macaques serve as important animal models for many human diseases in which KIRs are implicated; however, the study of KIR activity in this model is hindered by incomplete characterization of KIR(More)
Molecular interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their MHC class I ligands play a central role in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell responses to viral pathogens and tumors. Here we identify Mamu-A1*00201 (Mamu-A*02), a common MHC class I molecule in the rhesus macaque with a canonical Bw6 motif, as a ligand for(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells have traditionally been considered nonspecific components of innate immunity, but recent studies have shown features of antigen-specific memory in mouse NK cells. However, it has remained unclear whether this phenomenon also exists in primates. We found that splenic and hepatic NK cells from SHIV(SF162P3)-infected and(More)
Human NK (hNK) cells play a key role in mediating host immune responses against various infectious diseases. For practical reasons, the majority of the data on hNK cells has been generated using peripheral blood lymphocytes. In contrast, our knowledge of NK cells in human tissues is limited, and not much is known about developmental pathways of hNK cell(More)
Despite the fact that the majority of human pathogens are transmitted across mucosal surfaces, including the oral mucosae, oral immunity is poorly understood. Furthermore, because the normal flora of the oral cavity is vast and significantly diverse, host immunity must balance a complex system of tolerance and pathogen recognition. Due to the rapid(More)
BACKGROUND Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a new family of innate immune cells that have emerged as important regulators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation. However, limited data are available concerning the relative abundance and characteristics of ILC in the human lung. METHODS The aim of this study was to characterize and enumerate the different(More)
HIV/SIV infections break down the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa and lead to chronic immune activation and associated disease progression. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), distinguishable by high expression of NKp44 and RORγt, play key roles in mucosal defense and homeostasis, but are depleted from gastrointestinal (GI) tract large bowel during(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation.(More)