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• Fall fertilization may increase plant nutrient reserves, yet associated impacts on seedling cold hardiness are relatively unexplored. • Bareroot red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings in north-central Minnesota, USA were fall fertilized at the end of the first growing season with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) at 0, 11, 22, 44, or 89 kg N ha−1. Seedling(More)
Tomorrow’s forests face extreme pressures from contemporary climate change, invasive pests, and anthropogenic demands for other land uses. These pressures, collectively, demand land managers to reassess current and potential forest management practices. We discuss three considerations, functional restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering, which(More)
Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb® Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to short-term (1, 3, and 5 h)(More)
Reforestation in China is important for reversing anthropogenic activities that degrade the environment. Pinus tabulaeformis is desired for these activities, but survival and growth of seedlings can be hampered by lack of ectomycorrhizae. When outplanted in association with Ostryopsis davidiana plants on reforestation sites, P. tabulaeformis seedlings(More)
Few pine species develop a seedling grass stage; this growth phase, characterized by strong, carrot-like taproots and a stem-less nature, poses unique challenges during nursery production. Fertilization levels beyond optimum could result in excessive diameter growth that reduces seedling quality as measured by the root bound index (RBI). We grew longleaf(More)
Fall nutrient loading of deciduous forest nursery seedlings is of special interest because of foliage abscission and varied translocation patterns. For non-deciduous seedlings in the nursery, fall fertilization typically can reverse nutrient dilution and possibly increase nutrient reserves; however, this technique has received little attention with(More)
Inoculating a soilless medium with encapsulated Trichoderma harzianum did not affect any aspect of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca [Beissn.] Franco) seed germination or subsequent growth. Results of inoculating medium with a known pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum alone, or concurrently with T. harzianum, were the same: high levels of(More)
In forest and conservation nurseries in the Pacific Northwest USA, seedling production can be limited by root diseases caused by fungi in the genera Fusarium Link:Fr., Cylindrocarpon Wollenw., Phytophthora de Barry, and Pythium Pringsh. Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon, and Pythium are the most ubiquitous, whereas incidence of Phytophthora is mostly associated with(More)
An alginate prill formulation of Gliocladium virens (GL-21) was added as a top-dressings (54 g per m2) or incorporated into medium (1.2 kg per m3) used to grow Douglas-fir seedlings in styrofoam containers. Seedlings in the top-dress treatment were similar to control seedlings; infection and colonization by naturally-occurring Fusarium was unaffected by(More)