A new solution to the problem of automated placement of FET circuits has been implemented. This new approach automatically realizes a global solution to the problem yielding circuit location, circuit orientation, all cross column wires and blanks between circuits, thus eliminating many of the most tedious and error prone steps in physical design. The… (More)
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In this work, we study the standing wave solutions of an inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The inhomogeneity considered here is a varying coefficient of the nonlinear term. In particular, the nonlinearity is chosen to be repelling (defocusing) except on a finite interval. Localized solutions on a non-zero background, e.g., dark solitons trapped… (More)
Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide… (More)
Microparticles consisting of the thermal responsive polymer N-isopropyl acrylamide (polyNIPAM), a metal ion-binding ligand and a fluorophore pair that undergoes fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been prepared and characterized. Upon the addition of Cu(II), the microparticles swell or contract depending on whether charge is introduced or… (More)