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This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in propagating high-speed signals on lossy transmission lines encountered in high-performance computers. A technique is described for including frequency-dependent losses, such as skin effect and dielectric dispersion, in transmission line analyses. The disjoint group of available tools is brought(More)
We examined developmental changes of orexins/hypocretins and their receptors (OX1R and OX2R) in the rat hypothalamus from postnatal day 0 to 10 weeks, using in situ hybridization histochemistry for the prepro-orexin, OX1R and OX2R mRNAs and immunohistochemistry for orexin-A and orexin-B. The prepro-orexin mRNA was weakly detected in the lateral hypothalamic(More)
The discovery of neuropeptides has resulted in an increased understanding of novel regulatory mechanisms of certain physiological phenomena. Here we identify a novel neuropeptide of 36 amino-acid residues in rat brain as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor FM-4/TGR-1, which was identified to date as the neuromedin U (NMU)(More)
The effects of i.c.v. administration of orexin/hypocretin on plasma ACTH, corticosterone and c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat were examined. Plasma ACTH levels were markedly increased at 30 min after i.c.v. administration of orexin-A. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly increased in a dose-related manner 30 min after(More)
We have generated transgenic rats expressing an arginine vasopressin (AVP)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion gene. The expression of the eGFP gene and strong fluorescence were observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in transgenic rats. The hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal(More)
The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of adrenomedullin (AM) on plasma oxytocin (OXT), c-Fos protein (Fos), and c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the rat were investigated using RIA for OXT, immunohistochemistry for Fos, and in situ hybridization histochemistry for c-Fos mRNA.(More)
The gene expression of prepro-orexin, the precursor of orexin-A and orexin-B which are hypothalamic pepetides that are associated with feeding behavior, were examined in control (C57B1/6J) and obese (ob/ob and db/db) mice using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Orexins are identical with hypocretins that have been identified by directional tag PCR(More)
We have examined the effects of 3 weeks of food restriction on both the activity of neurons containing hypothalamic orexin (OX)-A and the level of OX receptor type 2 (OX2R) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats. Double immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of OX-A and Fos in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and in situ(More)
We have examined the effects of isotonic hypovolemia on the expression of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the rat, using in situ hybridization histochemistry with a 35S-labelled oligodeoxynucleotide probe complementary to nNOS mRNA. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of(More)
Orexins, which are identical to hypocretins, are novel hypothalamic orexigenic peptides. We examined the effects of food restriction on the expression of the prepro-orexin gene in control (C57Bl/6J) and genetically obese mice (ob/ob and db/db), using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Dry food was given 3 g/day to each obese mouse for 2 weeks. Food(More)