R. J. Krysztopik

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BACKGROUNd: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the most widely applied procedure for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux. However, it can be followed by adverse outcomes, including dysphagia and "wind-related" problems. To reduce the likelihood of side effects, we have progressively modified this procedure to an anterior 90° partial(More)
The aim of this study was to assess whether patients diagnosed with oesophageal or gastric cancer at a local district general hospital (the “spoke”) have a similar temporal pathway through the decision-making and treatment process compared to those patients presenting at the centralised, tertiary hospital (the “hub”). Between April 2010 and April 2011,(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple system organ failure (MOF) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Despite restoration of central hemodynamics, intestinal hypoperfusion can persist. Mucosal ischemia and barrier breakdown are factors in the genesis of MOF. Heparan sulfate is a gycosaminoglycan similar to heparin, but with minimal(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal mucosal hypoperfusion and loss of barrier function during sepsis may contribute to maintaining the septic state. Free radicals are produced during sepsis and antioxidants improve survival from experimental sepsis. It is unclear whether endothelial cell injury from free radicals results in altered microvascular reactivity. Lazaroids are(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclosporine (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity may be due to intrarenal vasoconstriction and glomerular hypoperfusion. Several factors, including endothelin and prostanoids, are suggested mediators of this response. Recent evidence suggests that CsA leads to increased oxygen-derived free radical (ODFR) production and lipid peroxidation in renal(More)
BACKGROUND Acute kidney failure in surgical patients is often related to severe infection. Renal vasoconstriction is a major factor in the genesis of kidney failure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to mediate kidney injury after ischemia-reperfusion and are increased during sepsis. The role of ROS as mediators of intrarenal vasoconstriction and(More)
Altered vascular responsiveness is the hallmark of septic shock. Recently, these changes have frequently been attributed to increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Continued exposure to high levels of NO may alter both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell function. Although ex vivo studies demonstrate hyporeactivity of large conduit arteries(More)
Background: Pneumothorax is a known complication of laparoscopy, with most pneumothoraces diagnosed postoperatively with conventional chest x-ray. Electrocardiogram (ECG) conduction changes are associated with pneumothorax. In a sheep model, ECG changes were evaluated as a potential indicator of intraoperative pneumothorax. Additionally, resolution rates of(More)
Bacteremia leads to rapid intrarenal vasoconstriction, mediated by endogenous vasoconstrictors such as TXA2 and endothelin. These changes occur before the onset of neutrophil adherence, platelet aggregation, or increases in proinflammatory cytokines. Pentoxifylline (PTX) increases red cell deformability, reduces neutrophil adhesion, abrogates rises in(More)
Early sepsis leads to renal hypoperfusion, despite a hyperdynamic systemic circulation. It is thought that failure of local control of the renal microcirculation leads to hypoperfusion and organ dysfunction. Of the many mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of microvascular vasoconstriction, arachidonic acid metabolites are thought to be important.(More)