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Excavation in the previously little-explored western portion of Olduvai Gorge indicates that hominid land use of the eastern paleobasin extended at least episodically to the west. Finds included a dentally complete Homo maxilla (OH 65) with lower face, Oldowan stone artifacts, and butchery-marked bones dated to be between 1.84 and 1.79 million years old.(More)
In humans and other primates, an increase in luminance in either eye elicits bilateral pupilloconstriction that is essentially equal in both eyes. Current models of the neural substrate for this clinically important light reflex propose that a retinorecipient pretectal nucleus projects bilaterally to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), which contains the(More)
Anions and cations have long been recognized to be capable of modifying the functioning of various membrane-related physiological processes. Here, a fluorescent ratio method using the styrylpyridinium dyes, RH421 and di-8-ANEPPS, was applied to determine the effect of a range of anions and cations on the intramembrane dipole potential of(More)
Four articulating hominid foot bones have been recovered from Sterkfontein Member 2, near Johannesburg, South Africa. They have human features in the hindfoot and strikingly apelike traits in the forefoot. While the foot is manifestly adapted for bipedalism, its most remarkable characteristic is that the great toe (hallux) is appreciably medially diverged(More)
The kinetics of Na(+)-dependent partial reactions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase from rabbit kidney were investigated via the stopped-flow technique, using the fluorescent labels N-(4-sulfobutyl)-4-(4-(p-(dipentylamino)phenyl)butadienyl)py ridinium inner salt (RH421) and 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein (5-IAF). When covalently labeled 5-IAF enzyme is mixed with ATP, the(More)
The kinetics of Na+-dependent partial reactions of the Na+,K+-ATPase were investigated via the stopped-flow technique using the fluorescent labels RH421 and BIPM. After the enzyme is mixed with MgATP, both labels give almost identical kinetic responses. Under the chosen experimental conditions two exponential time functions are necessary to fit the data.(More)
A fluorescent ratio method utilizing styrylpyridinium dyes has recently been suggested for the measurement of the membrane dipole potential. Up to now only qualititative measurements have been possible. Here the fluorescence excitation ratio of the dye di-8-ANEPPS has been measured in lipid vesicles composed of a range of saturated and unsaturated(More)
1. In the present study we used single-unit recording techniques in alert rhesus monkeys to investigate a precerebellar nucleus, the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP), for neurons related to vergence and ocular accommodation. 2. In the medial NRTP, we identified 32 cells with activity that linearly increased with increases in the amplitude of the(More)
In order to identify the pretectal nucleus which contains pupillomotor cells in the rat, cells were sought which were sensitive to changes in luminance level at the eye. Two types were found: Luminance detectors which showed a graded increase in firing with increase in luminance, and darkness detectors which showed a graded increase in firing rate with(More)
The kinetics of Na(+)-dependent phosphorylation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase by ATP were investigated via the stopped-flow technique using the fluorescent label RH421 (saturating [ATP], [Na(+)], and [Mg(2+)], pH 7.4, and 24 degrees C). The well-established effect of buffer composition on the E(2)-E(1) equilibrium was used as a tool to investigate the effect of(More)