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An algorithm for phase retrieval with Bayesian statistics is discussed. It is shown how the statistics of Kolmogorov turbulence can be used to compute the likelihood for a particular phase screen. This likelihood is then added to that of the observed data to produce a functional that is maximized directly by use of conjugate gradient maximization. It is(More)
This study examines the financing choices of firms operating in a weak institutional environment. We argue that in relationship-based systems, global financing and strong political connections are alternative means to create firm value. Well-connected firms might be less inclined to access global capital markets because (state-owned) domestic banks provide(More)
Since the introduction of the digital versatile disk (DVD) and the super audio CD (SACD), a revival of mul-tichannel audio has appeared in sound systems for consumer use today. It is, however, desirable to maintain compatibility with the existing two-channel stereo recordings and/or broadcasting. Therefore the conversion of two-channel stereo to the(More)
The presently available method of measuring segmental lumbar spine mobility by means of superimposition of lumbar spine radiographs in flexion and extension lacks precision due to differences in the cortical outline of the vertebral bodies in flexed and extended position. The introduction of digital image processing has opened the possibility of(More)
  • R. Irwan
  • 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical…
  • 2010
State of the art of CT technology will be presented. It has a z-coverage of 16cm to cover most of the organs in one single, non-helical, rotation. Whole body imaging using different scan methods will be presented, and a comparison in terms of scan time with helical scan mode will be discussed.
This study examines the financing choices of firms operating in a weak institutional environment. We argue that in relationship-based systems, global financing and political connections are substitutes: Well-connected firms are less likely to access foreign capital markets because (state-owned) domestic banks provide capital at low cost. Moreover, the(More)
The problem of estimating the centroid of an incoherently imaged point with a CCD array is analyzed. An exact analysis is presented that uses the actual short-exposure function at the CCD instead of the traditional Gaussian approximation. The analysis shows that, for Poisson noise, the centroid variance depends on the CCD size and that truncation effects(More)
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