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The paucity of enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides represents a major bottleneck for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. Cow rumen microbes specialize in degradation of cellulosic plant material, but most members of this complex community resist cultivation. To characterize biomass-degrading genes and(More)
Symbiotic gut microbes have facilitated the success of herbivorous mammals, which are generally grouped into foregut- and hindgut-fermenters. However, rodents are primarily herbivorous and exhibit a variety of gastrointestinal anatomies. Most rodents house microbes in hindgut chambers, such as the caecum and colon. Some rodents also exhibit stomach(More)
A new perspective on the topic of antibiotic resistance is beginning to emerge based on a broader evolutionary and ecological understanding rather than from the traditional boundaries of clinical research of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic insights into the evolution and diversity of several antibiotic resistance genes suggest that at(More)
Microbial population dynamics were evaluated in anaerobic codigesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Ribosomal RNA based oligonucleotide probes were used to characterize changes in population abundance of syntrophic volatile fatty acid degrading bacteria and methanogens. Changes in community structure were linked to traditional(More)
An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in(More)
A patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis resistant to all tropical therapy has had extensive tests of immunological function carried out before and after administration of transfer factor. Immunological testing has been both specific, directed at responses to candida antigen, and non-specific, directed at general assessment of the patient's immune(More)
Highly cellulolytic bacterial species such as Ruminococcus flavefaciens are regarded essential for the microbial breakdown of cellulose in the rumen. We have investigated the effect of ruminal dosing of R. flavefaciens strain 8/94-32 during realimentation of starved reindeer (males, n = 3). Microbiome function measured as in situ digestion of cellulose and(More)
Lignocellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate source in nature and represents an ideal renewable energy source. Thermostable enzymes that hydrolyze lignocellulose to its component sugars have significant advantages for improving the conversion rate of biomass over their mesophilic counterparts. We review here the recent literature on the development and(More)
Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie) on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the(More)
BACKGROUND Compromised barrier function and intestinal inflammation are common complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that the lack of enteral nutrients in TPN might select commensal or pathogenic bacteria that use mucus as a substrate, thereby weakening the protection provided by the intestinal mucus layer.(More)