Learn More
The paucity of enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides represents a major bottleneck for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. Cow rumen microbes specialize in degradation of cellulosic plant material, but most members of this complex community resist cultivation. To characterize biomass-degrading genes and(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of tetracycline resistance genes encoding the ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs) revealed the monophyletic origin of these genes. The most deeply branching class, exemplified by tet and otrA, consisted of genes from the antibiotic-producing organisms Streptomyces rimosus and Streptomyces lividans. With a high degree of confidence,(More)
An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in(More)
The gastrointestinal tract of a normal fetus is sterile. During the birth process and rapidly thereafter, microbes from the mother and surrounding environment colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the infant until a dense, complex microbiota develops. The succession of microbes colonizing the intestinal tract is most marked in early development, during(More)
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of mammals is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. While all major groups of microbes are represented, bacteria predominate. Importantly, bacterial cells outnumber animal (host) cells by a factor of ten and have a profound influence on nutritional, physiological and(More)
Symbiotic gut microbes have facilitated the success of herbivorous mammals, which are generally grouped into foregut- and hindgut-fermenters. However, rodents are primarily herbivorous and exhibit a variety of gastrointestinal anatomies. Most rodents house microbes in hindgut chambers, such as the caecum and colon. Some rodents also exhibit stomach(More)
The degradation of plant cell walls by ruminants is of major economic importance in the developed as well as developing world. Rumen fermentation is unique in that efficient plant cell wall degradation relies on the cooperation between microorganisms that produce fibrolytic enzymes and the host animal that provides an anaerobic fermentation chamber.(More)
AIM To determine whether Megasphaera elsdenii YE34 (lactic acid degrader) and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens YE44 (alternative starch utilizer to Streptococcus bovis) establish viable populations in the rumen of beef cattle rapidly changed from a forage-based to a grain-based diet. METHODS AND RESULTS Five steers were inoculated with the two bacterial strains(More)
In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance [tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA] were found in total DNA(More)
A new perspective on the topic of antibiotic resistance is beginning to emerge based on a broader evolutionary and ecological understanding rather than from the traditional boundaries of clinical research of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic insights into the evolution and diversity of several antibiotic resistance genes suggest that at(More)