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The grass flora of Namibia (374 species in 110 genera) shows surprisingly little variation in δ13C values along a rainfall gradient (50–600 mm) and in different habitat conditions. However, there are significant differences in the δ13C values between the metabolic types of the C4 photosynthetic pathway. NADP-ME-type C4 species exhibit the highest δ13C(More)
The land and ocean absorb on average just over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) every year. These CO 2 " sinks " are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and four ocean biogeo-chemical general circulation models (OBGCMs) to estimate trends driven by(More)
The involvement of two types of molecular chaperone in folding newly synthesized proteins can be rationalized in terms of the crowded nature of the intracellular environment. Recent work sheds light on how these chaperones recognise their substrates and protect them from the problems of macromolecular crowding.
Lead hydride was generated from acid solution, containing potassium ferricyanide as an oxidizing agent, by the reaction with alkaline borohydride solution. The effects of reaction conditions (hydrochloric acid, ferricyanide and borohydride concentrations), and the lengths of reaction and stripping coils were studied. The effects of trapping temperature and(More)
Some proteins avoid aggregation and fold more rapidly by being confined within a cage provided by the chaperonins GroEL and GroES. Chaperoning by confinement is much more efficient than chaperoning outside the cage. To survive in a competitive world, cells must optimise both the rate of production and the yield of correctly folded proteins. Partially folded(More)
The use of electric motors in class I, division 2 locations is a common practice in the petroleum and chemical industry. Experience has shown that induction motors do not normally provide sources of ignition for the combustible vapors that may occasionally be present. The application of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) introduces power that is not purely(More)
This paper reviews the physics and technology of wave-particle interaction experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Operation of fixed frequency (80 MHz) and tunable (40 – 80 MHz) ICRF transmitters and the associated transmission system is described. Key(More)
Progress is reported on a study to define a "pilot plant" to demonstrate the production of high grade heat in a fusion power plant configuration at the lowest possible capital cost. We are considering several driven reactor tokamak designs with fusion power production levels in the 15-50 MWth range, using demountable copper coils. We conclude that it is(More)
A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s(2)-1s3p)(More)