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mRNP remodeling events required for the transition of an mRNA from active translation to degradation are currently poorly understood. We identified protein factors potentially involved in this transition, which are present in mammalian P bodies, cytoplasmic foci enriched in 5' --> 3' mRNA degrading enzymes. We demonstrate that human P bodies contain the(More)
For centuries, cell biology has been based on light microscopy and at the same time been limited by its optical resolution. However, several new technologies have been developed recently that bypass this limit. These new super-resolution technologies are either based on tailored illumination, nonlinear fluorophore responses, or the precise localization of(More)
EphAs and ephrinAs are expressed in multiple areas of the developing brain in overlapping countergradients, notably in the retina and tectum. Here they are involved in targeting retinal axons to their correct topographic position in the tectum. We have used truncated versions of EphA3, single-amino acid point mutants of ephrinA5 and fluorescence resonance(More)
In the plasma membrane, syntaxin 1 and syntaxin 4 clusters define sites at which secretory granules and caveolae fuse, respectively. It is widely believed that lipid phases are mandatory for cluster formation, as cluster integrity depends on cholesterol. Here we report that the native lipid environment is not sufficient for correct syntaxin 1 clustering and(More)
We describe a localization microscopy analysis method that is able to extract results in live cells using standard fluorescent proteins and xenon arc lamp illumination. Our Bayesian analysis of the blinking and bleaching (3B analysis) method models the entire dataset simultaneously as being generated by a number of fluorophores that may or may not be(More)
Regulated exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells requires the formation of a stable soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex consisting of synaptobrevin-2/vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), and syntaxin 1. This complex is subsequently disassembled by(More)
Neuronal exocytosis is driven by the formation of SNARE complexes between synaptobrevin 2 on synaptic vesicles and SNAP-25/syntaxin 1 on the plasma membrane. It has remained controversial, however, whether SNAREs are constitutively active or whether they are down-regulated until fusion is triggered. We now show that synaptobrevin in proteoliposomes as well(More)
We report the implementation and exploitation of fluorescence polarization measurements, in the form of anisotropy fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (rFLIM) and energy migration Förster resonance energy transfer (emFRET) modalities, for wide-field, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry of cells. These methods permit the assessment of(More)
PURPOSE Lipofuscin (LF) and melanolipofuscin (MLF) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are the principal sources of autofluorescence (AF) signals in clinical fundus-AF imaging. Few details about the subcellular distribution of AF organelles in AMD are available. We describe the impact of aging and AMD on RPE morphology revealed by the distribution of AF(More)
Fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy allows an improved imaging of microscopic objects in three dimensions. However, the resolution along the axial direction is three times worse than the resolution in lateral directions. A method to overcome this axial limitation is tilting the object under the microscope, in a way that the direction of the(More)