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Oligodinucleotides containing CpG motifs stimulate vertebrate immune cells in vitro, have proven efficacy in murine disease models and are currently being tested in human clinical trials as therapies for cancer, allergy, and infectious disease. As there are no known immunostimulatory motifs for veterinary species, the potential of CpG DNA as a veterinary(More)
Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG)-DNA can induce an impressive array of innate immune responses that may directly or indirectly contribute to the clearance of infectious agents. Assays, such as lymphocyte proliferative responses, have been used to demonstrate that the immunostimulatory activity of CpG-DNA is conserved among a broad range of vertebrate(More)
Examples exist in the literature that demonstrate that treatment with immunostimulatory cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG)-DNA can protect mice against infection by intracellular pathogens. There are, however, few studies reporting that CpG-DNA offers similar disease protection in other species. In this study, we assessed the potential of a class A and(More)
Non-methylated CpG motifs, present in viral and bacterial DNA, are one of many pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) recognized by the mammalian innate immune system. Recognition of this PAMP occurs through a specific interaction with toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and this interaction can induce cytokine responses that influence both innate and(More)
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) motifs have been shown to be effective immunoprotective agents in murine models for a variety of viral, intracellular bacterial, and protozoan infections. We recently have shown that CpG ODN protects against extracellular bacterial infections in mature chickens. The objective of(More)
The Arabidopsis thalianachlorophyll a/b binding protein underexpressed (cue1) mutant, which has been isolated in a screen for chlorophyll a/b binding protein (CAB) underexpressors, exhibits a reticulate leaf phenotype combined with delayed chloroplast development and aberrant shape of the palisade parenchyma cells. The affected gene in cue1 is a(More)
Plasmid DNA continues to attract interest as a potential vaccine-delivery vehicle. However, the mechanisms whereby immune responses are elicited by plasmids are not fully understood. Although there have been suggestions regarding the importance of CpG motifs in plasmid immunogenicity, the molecular mechanisms by which CpG motifs enhance immune responses to(More)
Bacterial DNA contains a much higher frequency of CpG dinucleotides than are present in mammalian DNA. Furthermore, bacterial CpG dinucleotides are often not methylated. It is thought that these two features in combination with specific flanking bases constitute a CpG motif that is recognized as a "danger" signal by the innate immune system of mammals and(More)
Protection against a challenge infection with Toxoplasma gondii VEG strain oocysts was examined in pigs after vaccination with T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites with or without a porcine specific synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs. Six groups of pigs were immunized with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and either(More)
A large number of studies demonstrated the immunostimulatory effects of CpG oligonucleotides (ODN), particularly in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of lipid-based delivery systems to enhance the adjuvant effect of CpG-ODN and protect against infection in a porcine pleuropneumonia model. Increased levels of OmlA-specific antibody were(More)