R. H. Spencer

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Mechanosensitive ion channels play a critical role in transducing physical stresses at the cell membrane into an electrochemical response. The MscL family of large-conductance mechanosensitive channels is widely distributed among prokaryotes and may participate in the regulation of osmotic pressure changes within the cell. In an effort to better understand(More)
Leukotrienes are proinflammatory products of arachidonic acid oxidation by 5-lipoxygenase that have been shown to be involved in respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The integral membrane protein FLAP is essential for leukotriene biosynthesis. We describe the x-ray crystal structures of human FLAP in complex with two leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors(More)
To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for generating physiologically diverse potassium channels in mammalian cells, mouse genomic clones have been isolated with a potassium channel complementary DNA, MBK1, that is homologous to the Drosophila potassium channel gene, Shaker. A family of three closely related potassium channel genes (MK1, MK2,(More)
Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant heart-hand syndrome characterized by congenital heart disease (CHD) and upper limb deformity, and caused by mutations in the TBX5 gene. To date, the sensitivity of TBX5 genetic testing for HOS has been unclear. We now report mutational analyses of a nongenetically selected population of 54 unrelated(More)
Lymphoid tumors induced by a recombinant murine retrovirus carrying the v-myc oncogene of avian MC29 virus were characterized. The Moloney murine leukemia virus myc oncogene (M-MuLV (myc], carried by an amphotropic MuLV helper, induced tumors in NIH Swiss and NFS/N mice after a relatively long latency (8 to 24 wk). Tumor masses appeared in the thymus,(More)
This review summarizes recent findings on peripheral mechanisms underlying the generation and inhibition of pain. The focus is on events occurring in peripheral injured tissues that lead to the sensitization and excitation of primary afferent neurons, and on the modulation of such mechanisms. Primary afferent neurons are of particular interest from a(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inflammatory pain is triggered by activation of pathways leading to the release of mediators such as bradykinin, prostaglandins, interleukins, ATP, growth factors and protons that sensitize peripheral nociceptors. The activation of acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs) may have particular relevance in the development and maintenance of(More)
The structures of an increasing number of channels and other alpha-helical membrane proteins have been determined recently, including the KcsA potassium channel, the MscL mechanosensitive channel, and the AQP1 and GlpF members of the aquaporin family. In this chapter, the orientation and packing characteristics of bilayer-spanning helices are surveyed in(More)
Ion channels represent a class of membrane spanning protein pores that mediate the flux of ions in a variety of cell types. To date, >400 ion channels have been cloned and characterized, and some of these channels have emerged as attractive drug targets. Several existing medications elicit their therapeutic effect through the modulation of ion channels,(More)