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Many factors influence how long it takes to respond to a visual stimulus. The lowest-level factors, such as luminance and contrast, determine how easily different elements of a target can be detected. Higher-level factors are to do with whether these elements constitute a stimulus requiring a response; they include prior probability and urgency. It is(More)
In the LATER model, randomness of saccadic latency arises through random variation in the rate of rise of the decision signal. But does it vary independently at different locations? If so, when pairs of targets are presented asynchronously, and the participant makes a saccade to the more salient one, the choice of target should be stochastic. Further, it(More)
Subjects undertook a saccadic gap task, in which the fixation target is extinguished for a period before the appearance of the peripheral stimulus. The majority showed a population of short-latency express saccades in addition to the main, slower, distribution. However, closer analysis showed that nearly all of this bimodality was due to the order in which(More)
Antisaccades are widely used in the study of voluntary behavioural control: a subject told to look in the opposite direction to a stimulus must suppress the automatic response of looking towards it, leading to delays and errors that are commonly believed to be generated by competing decision processes. However, currently we lack a precise model of the(More)
Our findings demonstrate a possible behavioral outcome of a visual system with massive retrograde connections between category-sensitive and more primary visual areas [5,12] and suggest a reassessment of theories that eschew top-down conceptual influences on visual selection [13,14]. The present results make it clear that visual perception depends not only(More)
One popular and fruitful approach to understanding what influences the decision of where to look next has been to present targets in a series of trials either to the right or left of a central fixation point and examine sequential effects on saccadic latency. However, there is a problem with this paradigm: Every saccade to a target is necessarily followed(More)
Measurement of the stochastic distribution of reaction time or latency has become a popular technique that can potentially provide precise, quantitative information about the underlying neural decision mechanisms. However, this approach typically requires data from large numbers of individual trials, in order to enable reliable distinctions to be made(More)
Premature return to play after concussion may have debilitating or even fatal consequences. Computerised neuropsychological test batteries are widely used to monitor recovery, but none meet all specified criteria. One possible alternative is to measure saccadic reaction time or latency. Latency reflects the operation of cerebral decision mechanisms, and is(More)