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The pathway of bacterial ribosome recycling following translation termination has remained obscure. Here, we elucidate two essential steps and describe the roles played by the three translation factors EF-G, RRF, and IF3. Release factor RF3 is known to catalyze the dissociation of RF1 or RF2 from ribosomes after polypeptide release. We show that the next(More)
The precision with which individual termination codons in mRNA are recognized by protein release factors (RFs) has been measured and compared with the decoding of sense codons by tRNA. An Escherichia coli system for protein synthesis in vitro with purified components was used to study the accuracy of termination by RF1 and RF2 in the presence or absence of(More)
The mechanism by which peptide release factor RF3 recycles RF1 and RF2 has been clarified and incorporated in a complete scheme for translation termination. Free RF3 is in vivo stably bound to GDP, and ribosomes in complex with RF1 or RF2 act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF). Hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA by RF1 or RF2 allows GTP binding to RF3 on(More)
Bacterial release factor RF2 promotes termination of protein synthesis, specifically recognizing stop codons UAA or UGA. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli RF2 has been determined to a resolution of 1.8 A. RF2 is structurally distinct from its eukaryotic counterpart eRF1. The tripeptide SPF motif, thought to confer RF2 stop codon specificity, and the(More)
Peptidyl-tRNA dissociation from ribosomes is an energetically costly but apparently inevitable process that accompanies normal protein synthesis. The drop-off products of these events are hydrolysed by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. Mutant selections have been made to identify genes involved in the drop-off of peptidyl-tRNA, using a thermosensitive peptidyl-tRNA(More)
Class 1 peptide release factors (RFs) in Escherichia coli are N(5)-methylated on the glutamine residue of the universally conserved GGQ motif. One other protein alone has been shown to contain N(5)-methylglutamine: E.coli ribosomal protein L3. We identify the L3 methyltransferase as YfcB and show that it methylates ribosomes from a yfcB strain in vitro, but(More)
E. coli mutants of RF1 and RF2, in which the universal GGQ motif is changed to GAQ, are slow in peptide release from ribosomes. Other kinetic properties are unchanged, suggesting that the GGQ motif is in contact with the peptidyl-transferase center. Deacylated tRNA terminates protein synthesis codon specifically, indicating that the CCA end of tRNA and the(More)
Ribosomes complexed with synthetic mRNA and peptidyl-tRNA, ready for peptide release, were purified by gel filtration and used to study the function of release factor RF3 and guanine nucleotides in the termination of protein synthesis. The peptide-releasing activity of RF1 and RF2 in limiting concentrations was stimulated by the addition of RF3 and GTP,(More)
Translational termination has been a largely ignored aspect of protein synthesis for many years. However, the recent identification of new release-factor genes, the mapping of release-factor functional sites and in vitro reconstitution experiments have provided a deeper understanding of the termination mechanism. In addition, protein-protein interactions(More)
Release factors RF1 and RF2 recognize stop codons present at the A-site of the ribosome and activate hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA to release the peptide chain. Interactions with RF3, a ribosome-dependent GTPase, then initiate a series of reactions that accelerate the dissociation of RF1 or RF2 and their recycling between ribosomes. Two regions of Escherichia(More)