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The mechanism by which peptide release factor RF3 recycles RF1 and RF2 has been clarified and incorporated in a complete scheme for translation termination. Free RF3 is in vivo stably bound to GDP, and ribosomes in complex with RF1 or RF2 act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF). Hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA by RF1 or RF2 allows GTP binding to RF3 on(More)
Peptidyl-tRNA dissociation from ribosomes is an energetically costly but apparently inevitable process that accompanies normal protein synthesis. The drop-off products of these events are hydrolysed by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. Mutant selections have been made to identify genes involved in the drop-off of peptidyl-tRNA, using a thermosensitive peptidyl-tRNA(More)
Methylation is a common modification encountered in DNA, RNA and proteins. It plays a central role in gene expression, protein function and mRNA translation. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic class I translation termination factors are methylated on the glutamine of the essential and universally conserved GGQ motif, in line with an important cellular role. In(More)
A complete translation system has been assembled from pure initiation, elongation and termination factors as well as pure aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. In this system, ribosomes perform repeated rounds of translation of short synthetic mRNAs which allows the time per translational round (the recycling time) to be measured. The system has been used to study(More)
The Michaelis constants and the maximum velocities in the aminoacylation reaction of tRNATrp from beef liver, yeast and E. coli by pure beef pancreas tryptophan-tRNA ligase show that this mammalian enzyme recognizes and charges the two eucaryotic tRNAs with the same efficiency. The rate of aminoacylation of the procaryotic tRNATrp by the enzyme is three(More)
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