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Bacterial release factor RF2 promotes termination of protein synthesis, specifically recognizing stop codons UAA or UGA. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli RF2 has been determined to a resolution of 1.8 A. RF2 is structurally distinct from its eukaryotic counterpart eRF1. The tripeptide SPF motif, thought to confer RF2 stop codon specificity, and the(More)
The pathway of bacterial ribosome recycling following translation termination has remained obscure. Here, we elucidate two essential steps and describe the roles played by the three translation factors EF-G, RRF, and IF3. Release factor RF3 is known to catalyze the dissociation of RF1 or RF2 from ribosomes after polypeptide release. We show that the next(More)
The mechanism by which peptide release factor RF3 recycles RF1 and RF2 has been clarified and incorporated in a complete scheme for translation termination. Free RF3 is in vivo stably bound to GDP, and ribosomes in complex with RF1 or RF2 act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF). Hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA by RF1 or RF2 allows GTP binding to RF3 on(More)
Ribosomes complexed with synthetic mRNA and peptidyl-tRNA, ready for peptide release, were purified by gel filtration and used to study the function of release factor RF3 and guanine nucleotides in the termination of protein synthesis. The peptide-releasing activity of RF1 and RF2 in limiting concentrations was stimulated by the addition of RF3 and GTP,(More)
The precision with which individual termination codons in mRNA are recognized by protein release factors (RFs) has been measured and compared with the decoding of sense codons by tRNA. An Escherichia coli system for protein synthesis in vitro with purified components was used to study the accuracy of termination by RF1 and RF2 in the presence or absence of(More)
Translational termination has been a largely ignored aspect of protein synthesis for many years. However, the recent identification of new release-factor genes, the mapping of release-factor functional sites and in vitro reconstitution experiments have provided a deeper understanding of the termination mechanism. In addition, protein-protein interactions(More)
Release factors RF1 and RF2 are required in bacteria for the cleavage of peptidyl-tRNA. A single sequence motif, GGQ, is conserved in all eubacterial, archaebacterial and eukaryotic release factors and may mimic the CCA end of tRNA, although the position of the motif in the crystal structures of human eRF1 and Escherichia coli RF2 is strikingly different.(More)
Two protein release factors (RFs) showing codon specificity, RF1 and RF2, are known to be required for polypeptide chain termination in Escherichia coli. A third protein component has also been described that stimulates termination in vitro, but it has remained uncertain whether this protein, RF3, participates in termination in vivo or is essential to cell(More)
Class 1 peptide release factors (RFs) in Escherichia coli are N(5)-methylated on the glutamine residue of the universally conserved GGQ motif. One other protein alone has been shown to contain N(5)-methylglutamine: E.coli ribosomal protein L3. We identify the L3 methyltransferase as YfcB and show that it methylates ribosomes from a yfcB strain in vitro, but(More)
Peptidyl-tRNA dissociation from ribosomes is an energetically costly but apparently inevitable process that accompanies normal protein synthesis. The drop-off products of these events are hydrolysed by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. Mutant selections have been made to identify genes involved in the drop-off of peptidyl-tRNA, using a thermosensitive peptidyl-tRNA(More)