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A hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis is described, comprising a rigid ankle-foot brace, a multi-channel FES stimulator with surface electrodes, body mounted sensors, a 'rule-based' controller and an electro-cutaneous display for supplementary sensory feedback. The mechanical brace provides stability, without FES activation of muscles,(More)
Proprioceptive sensory feedback is utilized by the central nervous system for conscious appreciation of the position and movement of the body and limbs. In patients with the hypermobility syndrome (HMS), it has been suggested that there is alteration of proprioceptive acuity. Proprioceptive performance of the knee joint was investigated in 10 female(More)
In the restoration of gait for paraplegics using functional electrical stimulation, the method most commonly used to produce hip flexion for the swing phase of gait has been the elicitation of the flexion withdrawal response. Several problems have been noted with the response: there is a decrease in the magnitude of the hip flexion to repeated stimuli(More)
The flexion withdrawal reflex, evoked by surface electrical stimulation, has been used to provide hip flexion for the restoration of gait in paraplegics. A major limitation to its use has been the decrease in the magnitude of the response to repeated stimulation (habituation). In this study it was found that by using high intensity stimulation the response(More)
1. Changes in excitability of reflex arcs mediating flexion withdrawal ad crossed extensor reflexes have been examined in decerebrate cats. 2. The excitability of flexion withdrawal and crossed extensor reflexes was shown to be modulated by knee joint position. Flexion withdrawal reflexes were most easily elicited when the knee was extended and crossed(More)
In order to develop a control system for electrical stimulation of paralysed muscle and improve muscle resistance to fatigue, it is useful to investigate the possibilities of simulating the control systems of the normal body. One way is the periodic shifting of stimulation from one muscle to another. This technique is called sequential stimulation and(More)
Local muscle fatigue was investigated in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during sustained isometric contractions. The volunteers' subjective perception of fatigue or pain was recorded at intervals during the sustained contractions, and this level was then compared to objective measures of fatigue. These objective measures included shift in median(More)
The effect of measuring bite force with different patterns of transducer on different occasions was studied. Maximum voluntary bite force was measured in eight volunteers. Three transducer positions, each with a different pattern of transducer, were used; between the anterior teeth, between the second premolar and the first molar on one side and between the(More)