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A detailed review of all 2,047 biomedical and life-science research articles indexed by PubMed as retracted on May 3, 2012 revealed that only 21.3% of retractions were attributable to error. In contrast, 67.4% of retractions were attributable to misconduct, including fraud or suspected fraud (43.4%), duplicate publication (14.2%), and plagiarism (9.8%).(More)
We tested a hypothesis that children with sickle cell disease who are completely normal by magnetic resonance imaging can still be cognitively impaired, as predicted by a model of diffuse brain injury. Fifty-four patients with hemoglobin SS (average age 10.9 years +/- 2.9 years SD) were examined with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the magnetic susceptibility of brain tissue and iron concentration. Phase shifts in gradient-echo images (TE = 60 ms) were measured in 21 human subjects, (age 0.7-45 years) and compared with published values of regional brain iron concentration. Phase was correlated with brain iron(More)
Age-related changes in brain T1 from 115 healthy subjects (range, 4.5-71.9 yr) were analyzed in relation to published regional brain iron concentration in cortex, caudate, putamen, and frontal white matter. The relaxation rate in these structures was linear with respect to iron concentration (P < 0.001). The iron relaxivity, k1 (s(-1)/mg iron/g wet weight),(More)
BACKGROUND Papers retracted for fraud (data fabrication or data falsification) may represent a deliberate effort to deceive, a motivation fundamentally different from papers retracted for error. It is hypothesised that fraudulent authors target journals with a high impact factor (IF), have other fraudulent publications, diffuse responsibility across many(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of people with schizophrenia assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually include patients with first-episode and chronic disease, yet brain abnormalities may be limited to those with chronic schizophrenia. AIMS To determine whether patients with a first episode of schizophrenia have characteristic brain abnormalities. (More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To determine the sample size needed to provide adequate statistical power in studies of brain volume by MR imaging, we examined the precision and variability of measurements in healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cohort of 52 people (mean age, 25.1 years) was examined at weeks 0 and 12 at 1.5 T. We used an axial multisection(More)
BACKGROUND The number of retracted scientific publications has risen sharply, but it is unclear whether this reflects an increase in publication of flawed articles or an increase in the rate at which flawed articles are withdrawn. METHODS AND FINDINGS We examined the interval between publication and retraction for 2,047 retracted articles indexed in(More)
Segmented k-space acquisition of data was used to decrease the acquisition time and to increase the imaging resolution of the precise and accurate inversion recovery (PAIR) method of measuring T(1). We validated the new TurboPAIR method by measuring T(1) in 158 regions of interest in 12 volunteers, using both PAIR and TurboPAIR. We found a 3% difference(More)
To determine whether there were age-related changes in the brain tissue of 55 healthy adult volunteers (29 men, 26 women; 18-72 years old) without known brain abnormalities, a standard inversion-recovery technique was optimized for precise and accurate T1 measurement within the constraints of a 15-minute examination. Measurements of water proton T1 were(More)