R. Geoffrey Burwell

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The aetiology of the three-dimensional spinal deformity of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is unknown. Progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) that mainly affects girls is generally attributed to relative anterior spinal overgrowth from a mechanical mechanism (torsion) during the adolescent growth spurt. Established biological risk factors to AIS are(More)
BACKGROUND Despite considerable advances in the past few decades, there is no generally accepted "top theory or theories" of the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This article aims to provide an overview of the current main hypothetical "concepts" on the etiopathogenesis of AIS. METHODS An extensive literature review on hypothetical(More)
There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has(More)
There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has(More)
Skin transplanted as a homograft from one animal to a genetically dissimilar animal of the same species is rejected after nine to twelve days, probably because of actively acquired immune reactions (Medawar 1944, 1945; Billingham, Brent and Medawar 1954; Billingham, Brent, Medawar and Sparrow 1954). The acquired resistance is termed either transplantation(More)
Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories(More)
Several workers consider that the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) involves undetected neuromuscular dysfunction. During normal development the central nervous system (CNS) has to adapt to the rapidly growing skeleton of adolescence, and in AIS to developing spinal asymmetry from whatever cause. Examination of evidence from (1) anomalous(More)
This paper reports a new method for expressing numerically asymmetry of the contour of the back in a forward-bending position. Information is given at three spinal levels (T8, T12 and L3) for 636 schoolchildren aged 8 to 15 years. Rib-hump and lumbar-hump scores were standardised to create trunk asymmetry scores (TASs) making comparison possible between(More)
There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the etiology of idiopathic scoliosis, and treatment is pragmatic and unrelated to such knowledge. As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate(More)
The autonomic nervous system through its hypothalamic neuroendocrine control of puberty, skeletal growth and menarche contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Melatonin dysfunction detected in AIS subjects also involves the autonomic nervous system. The thoracospinal concept for the pathogenesis of right thoracic(More)