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Proplasmepsin II is the zymogen of plasmepsin II, an aspartic proteinase used by Plasmodiumfalciparum to digest hemoglobin during the blood stage of malaria. A large shift between the N-domain and the central and C-domains of proplasmepsin II opens the active site cleft, preventing the formation of a functional aspartic proteinase active site. This mode of(More)
Malarial parasites growing inside erythrocytes digest up to 80% of the host cell's haemoglobin within a lysosomal organelle, the digestive vacuole. They sequester the potentially toxic haem (Fe (II) protohaematoporphyrin) that is released during this process into an insoluble pigment called haemozoin, which consists of polymerized Fe (III)(More)
Two aspartic proteinases, plasmepsins I and II, are present in the digestive vacuole of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum and are believed to be essential for parasite degradation of haemoglobin. Here we report the expression and kinetic characterisation of functional recombinant plasmepsin I. In order to generate active plasmepsin I from(More)
The saturable uptake of chloroquine by parasites of Plasmodium falciparum has been attributed to specific carrier-mediated transport of chloroquine. It is suggested that chloroquine is transported in exchange for protons by the parasite membrane Na+/H+ exchanger [J Biol Chem 272:2652-2658 (1997)]. Once inside the parasite, it is proposed that chloroquine(More)
Hematin polymerization is a parasite-specific process that enables the detoxification of heme following its release in the lysosomal digestive vacuole during hemoglobin degradation, and represents both an essential and a unique pharmacological drug target. We have developed a high-throughput in vitro microassay of hematin polymerization based on the(More)
We have used a specific inhibitor of the malarial aspartic proteinase plasmepsin I and a nonspecific cysteine proteinase inhibitor to investigate the importance of hemoglobin degradation in the mechanism of action of chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine (MQ), halofantrine, and primaquine. Both proteinase inhibitors antagonized the antiparasitic(More)
A non-polymorphic antigen associated with the rhoptry organelles of Plasmodium falciparum has been purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. The antigen, RAP-1 (rhoptry associated protein-1), which is defined by monoclonal antibodies which inhibit parasite growth in vitro, is a multi-component antigen consisting of four major proteins of 80, 65, 42 and 40(More)
We have recently demonstrated that a non-polymorphic rhoptry antigen, RAP-1 (rhoptry associated protein-1), which is recognised by human immune serum, can successfully protect Saimiri monkeys from a lethal infection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In this report we further characterise the antigen, which consists of four major proteins of 80, 65, 42 and(More)
Plasmodium falciparum is an intracellular parasite of the red blood cell. During development it exports proteins which are transported to specific locations within the host erythrocyte. We have begun to identify and characterize exported membrane proteins of P. falciparum in order to obtain specific marker molecules for the study of the mechanisms involved(More)
For working power supply engineers, the Unitrode handbook is often the standard reference for control analysis. This paper gives a very simple extension to the existing Unitrode models that accounts for the subharmonic oscillation phenomenon seen in current-mode controlled converters. Without needing any comI?lex analysis, the oscillation phenomenon, ramp(More)