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Plants offer metabolically rich floral nectar to attract visiting pollinators. The composition of nectar includes not only sugars, but also amino acids. We have examined the amino acid content of the nectar of ornamental tobacco and found that it is extremely rich (2 mM) in proline. Because insect pollinators preferentially utilize proline during the(More)
Crick and Mitchison have presented a hypothesis for the functional role of dream sleep involving an 'unlearning' process. We have independently carried out mathematical and computer modelling of learning and 'unlearning' in a collective neural network of 30-1,000 neurones. The model network has a content-addressable memory or 'associative memory' which(More)
Fifty-eight soybean accessions from the genus Glycine, subgenus Soja, were surveyed with 17 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers to assess the level of molecular diversity and to evaluate the usefulness of previously identified RFLP markers. In general, only low levels of molecular diversity were observed: 2 of the 17 markers(More)
Cluster analysis techniques were used to examine phenotypic variation within the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. This study included ten Plant Introductions each of the domesticated soybean, Glycine max (L). Merr., the ‘wild’ soybean, G. soja Sieb. & Zucc., and a disputed species, G. gracilis Skvortz. G. max and G. soja were found to be morphologically(More)
Based on previously published hydroponic plant, planktonic bacterial, and soil microbial community research, manufactured nanomaterial (MNM) environmental buildup could profoundly alter soil-based food crop quality and yield. However, thus far, no single study has at once examined the full implications, as no studies have involved growing plants to full(More)
Active endogenous transposable elements, useful tools for gene isolation, have not been reported from any legume species. An active transposable element was suggested to reside in the W4 locus that governs flower color in soybean. Through biochemical and molecular analyses of several revertants of the w4-m allele, we have shown that the W4 locus encodes(More)
Mutability of the w 4 flower color locus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is conditioned by an unstable allele designated w 4 -m. Germinal revertants, purple-flower plants, recovered among self-pollinated progeny of mutable flower plants were associated with the generation of necrotic root, chlorophyll-deficiency, and sterility mutations. Thirty-seven(More)
Soybean partial-female-sterile mutant 1 (PS-1) was recovered from a gene-tagging study. The objectives were to study the inheritance, linkage, allelism, and certain aspects of the reproductive biology of the PS-1 mutant. For inheritance and linkage tests, PS-1 was crossed to flower color mutant Harosoy-w4 and to chlorophyll-deficient mutant CD-1, also(More)
The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase-1 (Mdh1) gene of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] spontaneously mutates to a null phenotype at a relatively high rate. To determine the molecular basis for the instability of the Mdh1 gene, the gene was cloned and sequenced. The null phenotype correlated with the deletion of specific genomic restriction fragments that(More)
The soybean root necrosis (rn) mutation causes a progressive browning of the root soon after germination that is associated with accumulation of phytoalexins and pathogenesis-related proteins and an increased tolerance to root-borne infection by the fungal pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. Grafting and decapitation experiments indicate that the rn phenotype is(More)