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Crick and Mitchison have presented a hypothesis for the functional role of dream sleep involving an 'unlearning' process. We have independently carried out mathematical and computer modelling of learning and 'unlearning' in a collective neural network of 30-1,000 neurones. The model network has a content-addressable memory or 'associative memory' which(More)
Based on previously published hydroponic plant, planktonic bacterial, and soil microbial community research, manufactured nanomaterial (MNM) environmental buildup could profoundly alter soil-based food crop quality and yield. However, thus far, no single study has at once examined the full implications, as no studies have involved growing plants to full(More)
Active endogenous transposable elements, useful tools for gene isolation, have not been reported from any legume species. An active transposable element was suggested to reside in the W4 locus that governs flower color in soybean. Through biochemical and molecular analyses of several revertants of the w4-m allele, we have shown that the W4 locus encodes(More)
Mutability of the w(4) flower color locus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is conditioned by an unstable allele designated w(4)-m. Germinal revertants, purple-flower plants, recovered among self-pollinated progeny of mutable flower plants were associated with the generation of necrotic root, chlorophyll-deficiency, and sterility mutations. Thirty-seven(More)
Soybean exhibits natural variation in flower and seed coat colors via the deposition of various anthocyanin pigments in the respective tissues. Although pigmentation in seeds or flowers has been well dissected at molecular level in several plant species, the genes controlling natural variation in anthocyanin traits in the soybean are not completely(More)
The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] chlorophyll-deficient line MinnGold is a spontaneous mutant characterized by yellow foliage. Map-based cloning and transgenic complementation revealed that the mutant phenotype is caused by a nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution in the third exon of a Mg-chelatase subunit gene (ChlI1a) on chromosome 13. This gene was(More)
Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have been studied persistently to understand genetic mechanisms controlling metabolic pathways. A spontaneous chlorophyll-deficient lethal mutant was observed in self-pollinated progeny of a soybean cultivar " BSR 101 ". Observed segregation patterns indicated single-gene recessive inheritance for this lethal-yellow mutant. The(More)