R G Burwell

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This paper reports a new method for expressing numerically asymmetry of the contour of the back in a forward-bending position. Information is given at three spinal levels (T8, T12 and L3) for 636 schoolchildren aged 8 to 15 years. Rib-hump and lumbar-hump scores were standardised to create trunk asymmetry scores (TASs) making comparison possible between(More)
There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has(More)
Several workers consider that the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) involves undetected neuromuscular dysfunction. During normal development the central nervous system (CNS) has to adapt to the rapidly growing skeleton of adolescence, and in AIS to developing spinal asymmetry from whatever cause. Examination of evidence from (1) anomalous(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a spinal deformity with unknown cause. Previous studies have suggested that subclinical neurologic abnormalities are associated with AIS. The objective of this prospective study was to characterize systematically neuroanatomic changes in patients with left thoracic AIS vs right thoracic AIS and(More)
A detailed study of the effects of forward flexion in the spine on back shape is reported. ISIS and the Scoliometer were used to record angle of trunk inclinations (ATIs) in 13 patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Two standard positions were used: standing erect (for ISIS) and sitting forward bending (for the Scoliometer). In the lumbar region, a positional(More)
Extra-spinal skeletal length asymmetry have been reported for the upper limbs and periapical ribs of patients with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This paper reports (1) a third pattern with relative lengthening of the ilium on the concavity of lower spine scolioses, and (2) a fourth pattern of relative lengthening of the right total leg and right(More)
Anomalous extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries have been detected in girls with adolescent idiopathic (AIS) in four sites (1) upper limbs, (2) periapical ribs, (3) ilium, and (4) right leg and right tibia. This paper on adolescent girls with lower spine scoliosis reports (1) a fifth pattern of left-right ilio-femoral length asymmetry(More)
There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In recent years encouraging advances thought to be related to the pathogenesis of AIS have been made in several fields. After reviewing concepts of AIS pathogenesis we formulated a collective model of pathogenesis. The central concept of this collective(More)
The vertebra prominens is found most frequently at C7 in both sexes (78.7% of 47 females, 58.8% of 17 males). It is frequently at T1 in females (3 of 47: 6.4%) though not uncommonly so in males (6 of 17: 35%). The first spinous process felt at the lower end of the nuchal furrow is an unreliable guide to the vertebra prominens in the female (being at C6 in(More)
The aims of posterior fusion and instrumentation in scoliosis are to achieve and maintain correction of the deformity and balance the spine in three planes, whilst keeping the fusion as short as possible and protecting the spinal cord. Harrington developed the first generation of posterior instrumentation, which considered only frontal plane correction.(More)