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The PCR-based methodology applied to multiple-locus variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis was recently shown to be a useful technique for the molecular typing of clinical isolates of several bacterial species. We have adopted this method for the molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Five staphylococcal VNTR loci (sdr,(More)
Staphostatins are the endogenous inhibitors of the major secreted cysteine proteases of Staphylococcus aureus, the staphopains. Here, we present the 1.4 A crystal structure of staphostatin B and show that the fold can be described as a fully closed, highly sheared eight-stranded beta-barrel. Thus, staphostatin B is related to beta-barrel domains that are(More)
Staphylococcus aureus , a leading cause of bacterial infections in humans, is endowed with a wealth of virulence factors that contribute to the disease process. Several extracellular proteolytic enzymes, including cysteine proteinases referred to as the staphopains (staphopain A, encoded by the scpA gene, and staphopain B, encoded by sspB ), have proposed(More)
The genes encoding secreted, broad-spectrum activity cysteine proteases of Staphylococcus spp. (staphopains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (streptopain, SpeB) are genetically linked to genes encoding cytoplasmic inhibitors. While staphopain inhibitors have lipocalin-like folds, streptopain is inhibited by a protein bearing the scaffold of the enzyme(More)
Prostaphopain B is the precursor of staphopain B, a papain-type secreted cysteine protease from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we describe the 2.5 A crystal structure of the proenzyme. Its 21 kDa proregion is organized around a central half-barrel or barrel-sandwich hybrid and occludes primed, but not nonprimed, sites in the active site cleft of(More)
Staphostatins are the endogenous inhibitors of the major secreted cysteine proteases of Staphylococcus aureus, the staphopains. Our recent crystal structure of staphostatin B has shown that this inhibitor forms a mixed, eight-stranded beta-barrel with statistically significant similarity to lipocalins, but not to cystatins. We now present the 1.8-A crystal(More)
Staphostatins are the endogenous, highly specific inhibitors of staphopains, the major secreted cysteine proteases from Staphylococcus aureus. We have previously shown that staphostatins A and B are competitive, active site-directed inhibitors that span the active site clefts of their target proteases in the same orientation as substrates. We now report the(More)
This single-dose, open-label, parallel-group study compared the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of 120 mg doses of nateglinide, a physiologic mealtime glucose regulator for type 2 diabetes, in 8 subjects with cirrhosis and 8 matched healthy subjects. In both groups, plasma concentration peaked in a median of 0.5 hours, and mean terminal elimination(More)
Photosystem II from transplastomic plants of Nicotiana tabacum with a hexahistidine tag at the N-terminal end of the PsbE subunit (α-chain of the cytochrome b(559)) was purified according to the protocol of Fey et al. (BBA 12:1501-1509, 2008). The protein sample was then subjected to two additional gel filtration runs in order to increase its homogeneity(More)
Protein ubiquitination requires the sequential activity of three enzymes: a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ubiquitin-ligase (E3). The ubiquitin-transfer machinery is hierarchically organized; for every ubiquitin-activating enzyme, there are several ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and most ubiquitin-conjugating(More)