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BACKGROUND Previous research suggests that children are a high risk group vulnerable to the effects of chronic noise exposure. However, questions remain about the nature of the noise effects and the underlying causal mechanisms. This study addresses the effects of aircraft noise exposure on children around London Heathrow airport, in terms of stress(More)
We examined the relationship between metabolic stress, brain adenosine regulation, and the learned helplessness effect in four experiments in rats. Glucoprivation and metabolic inhibition were induced by treating previously restrained (nonshocked) rats with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) shortly before escape testing. Experiment 1 demonstrated that(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess attentional biases associated with food and body shape/weight words in fasted and nonfasted high and low Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) scorers. METHOD Subjects were 56 female first-year undergraduate psychology students, aged 17-24 years, participating for course credit. High and low scorers on the Drive for Thinness and Body(More)
Speeding is a major contributor to road trauma and attitudes toward speeding are hypothesised to be a key determinant of the behaviour. Attitudinal research is limited by reliance on self-report measures and the attendant possibility of reporting biases. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure attitudes without reliance on self-report, by(More)
Exposure to uncontrollable, unpredictable appetitive events produces a variety of cognitive debilitations and vegetative changes, as does exposure to uncontrollable, unpredictable aversive events. Similarities include impaired escape from aversive events, impaired discrimination, finicky consumption, analgesia, and body weight loss. However, in stark(More)
The sources of human exposure to low-frequency noise and its effects are reviewed. Low-frequency noise is common as background noise in urban environments, and as an emission from many artificial sources: road vehicles, aircraft, industrial machinery, artillery and mining explosions, and air movement machinery including wind turbines, compressors, and(More)
Three experiments examined the role of adenosine neuroregulation in the production of shuttle-escape deficits caused by prior exposure to inescapable electric shock in rats (learned helplessness). Intracerebroventricular administration of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA), a selective adenosine deaminase inhibitor, mimicked the effect of earlier(More)
Exposure to inescapable shock has been shown to result in reduced consumption of quinine in water (the finickiness effect) in rats. In the present experiment, (a) a clear difference in finickiness occurred between male adult rats exposed to inescapable shock and those exposed to escapable shock (the first such demonstration), (b) finickiness was reinstated(More)
In order to examine the role of noise sensitivity in response to environmental noise, this paper presents detailed comparisons of socio-acoustic studies conducted around international airports in Amsterdam, Sydney, and London. Earlier findings that noise sensitivity moderates the effect of noise on annoyance were examined to see if they could be replicated(More)
Despite the dangers, many drivers continue to take risks when driving. This paper outlines an explanation of this risk-taking behavior and the failure of numerous fear-arousing messages to change the manner in which many people drive. Being an occupant in a car and learning to drive may be seen as analogous to systemic desensitization and flooding(More)