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A controlled study was carried out to investigate the physiological effects of road transport on sheep. Animals (n = 10; body weight 38.9 +/- 1.3 kg), previously with catheters in their jugular veins, were rounded up and loaded onto a vehicle where they were held in a communal pen with eight other lambs. Blood samples were taken at 30 min intervals during(More)
In this study, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to determine the regional and cellular localization of vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP) mRNA in the sheep brain and pituitary with an 35S-labelled synthetic 45-mer oligonucleotide probe complementary to the bovine AVP gene. The highest densities of labelled cell bodies were found in the(More)
The febrile and neuroendocrine responses to circulating endotoxin are effected, at least in part, by a central action of prostaglandins with interleukins serving as intermediaries. Data from rodents suggest that prostaglandin and interleukin (IL-1 beta) synthesis in response to endotoxin challenge may occur within the circumventricular organs of the brain,(More)
Glucocorticoids bind to hippocampal mineralo-(MR) and gluco-(GR) corticoid receptors and, at high concentrations (e.g. as seen following treatment with pharmacological doses of corticosteroids or during stress), may affect hippocampal neuronal function. Such actions could involve brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its receptor, trkB, and the(More)
Four prepubertal pigs were prepared with venous catheters and housed in metabolism cages. Plasma and saliva samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 105-min period and analysed by radioimmunoassay for total (i.e. free and bound) cortisol content. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was given i.v. at three different doses (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg) after the(More)
The combined effects of hypothalamic steroid implants and subcutaneous hormone injections on the courtship, copulatory and aggressive behaviour of five castrated male sheep (wethers) were assessed in thrice weekly tests with sexually receptive ewes. The animals were prepared with bilateral guide tubes for the insertion of removable hormone-containing(More)
There is evidence to indicate that cytokines of the interleukin series act within the brain to influence physiological responses to pathological states or stressful events. This investigation examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (lateral ventricle) injection of human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on body temperature, hormone(More)
1. The ability of nitric oxide inhibitors to antagonize the febrile effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (20 microg/animal i.v.) was assessed in prepubertal pigs in which deep body temperature was measured at 10-min intervals for 180 min. 2. In experiment 1, pigs (n=5) were injected with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (30 mg/kg i.v.)(More)
Prepubertal pigs (n = 8) treated with bacterial endotoxin (20 micrograms lipopolysaccharide; LPS) exhibited a sustained (4 h) hyperthermia, increased plasma concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone and vasopressin, but no change in adrenaline or noradrenaline levels was observed. All these effects were prevented or attenuated when the animals(More)