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In this review the following major points are emphasized. First, the descending auditory system includes 3 separate, but parallel pathways connecting the AC, MGB and IC. Each pathway makes a strong set of connections with a distinctive area from each of 3 auditory centers. The three sets of connections are mutually exclusive, such that the pathways describe(More)
The nuclei of the lateral lemniscus in the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, are large and highly differentiated. In each nucleus, different characteristic response properties predominate. To determine whether the dissimilar response properties are due in part to differential ascending input, we examined the retrograde transport from small deposits of(More)
The cochlea of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii) has sharp tuning characteristics and pronounced resonance within a narrow band near the second harmonic, constant frequency (CF2) component of the animal's biosonar signals. That fine frequency discrimination occurs within this narrow band is evident from Doppler-shift compensation, whereby bats in(More)
Neurons in the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL) of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, show several distinctive patterns of response to unmodulated tones. Previous work suggests that sustained responders are specialized to transmit information about sound level and duration while onset responders transmit precise timing information. The biosonar(More)
Acoustic stimuli near 60 kHz elicit pronounced resonance in the cochlea of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii parnellii). The cochlear resonance frequency (CRF) is near the second harmonic, constant frequency (CF2) component of the bat's biosonar signals. Within narrow bands where CF2 and third harmonic (CF3) echoes are maintained, the cochlea has(More)
Changes in amplitude are a characteristic feature of most natural sounds, including the biosonar signals used by bats for echolocation. Previous evidence suggests that the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus play an important role in processing timing information that is essential for target range determination in echolocation. Neurons that respond to(More)
Mustached bats, Pteronotus p. parnellii, use complex, multiharmonic biosonar signals with prominent approx. 60 kHz (CF) components. The sense of hearing is especially acute to sounds near 60 kHz and the cochlea shows a number of specializations in the 60 kHz region. Foremost is a remarkable degree of cochlear resonance. In this study it is shown that: 1)(More)
  • E Arthurs, T M S Eden, P Huang, S Elias, F Asano, R M Jelinek +30 others
  • 2009
Several authors have described various methods of picture coding with the object of reducing the information required to specify a picture (1-5). By using quite sophisticated schemes they succeeded in reducing the information from 6 bits/sample to 1-2 bits/sample and obtained reasonably good processed pictures. Two questions (6) were raised by their work:(More)
The ear of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii) shows marked cochlear resonance near 60 kHz and many sharply tuned neurons throughout the brain have best frequencies (BF) near the cochlear resonance frequency (CRF). Controlled changes in the normal physiological range of body temperature (approx 37-42 degrees C) were used to change the CRF and to study(More)
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