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The problem associated with using measurements from a small number of sites to determine mean skin temperature was investigated by studying variations in distributions of skin temperatures of the bare torsos of humans exposed to ambient temperatures of 18, 23, and 28° C. Following a 60 minute equilibration period the temperatures of four regions (chest,(More)
In the analyses of cases of death in cold air environments, it is often of interest to determine the time required for the body of the individual to cool to ambient temperature. Usually such determinations have been based on Newton's law of cooling. This paper describes a case history in which this technique was experimentally tested and consequently(More)
A computer-controlled system for the collection and analysis of skin temperature and heat flow data originating from an array of heat flux transducers is described. The system is based on a program ('THERMAL') that reads, stores, prints and displays skin temperatures and heat flow data every 2 min for up to 4 h. It also simultaneously calculates important(More)
Rectal, esophageal, auditory canal, gastrointestinal tract, and sublingual temperature were recorded on five young Caucasian males who, in an environment of -32 degrees C and 11-km/h wind, sat during one 90-min exposure and walked on a treadmill at 2.9 km/h during another. The clothing permitted cooling of their torsos while giving adequate protection to(More)
Twenty-two male Caucasians, aged 20-47 yr, were exposed in a cold room to air temperatures of -33 degrees C while lying in sleeping bags for 2 h. Skin and rectal temperatures as well as electromyographic activity of the chin, forearm, and thigh, were recorded. Shivering occurred in all the subjects, even though skin temperatures were maintained between 31(More)
Temperature variations near four common torso skin temperature sites were measured on 17 lightly clad subjects exposed to ambient temperatures of 28, 23, and 18 degrees C. Although variations in skin temperature exceeding 7 degrees C over a distance of 5 cm were observed on individuals, the mean magnitude of these variations was 2-3 degrees C under the(More)
The effect of the ingestion of alcohol on cooling in seminude human subjects was examined at 25 and 30 degrees C in air; in heavily clothed individuals at -23 degrees C in air; and nude subjects in a water calorimeter at 25 degrees C. It was observed that consumption of the equivalent of five bar whiskey drinks did not affect the cooling rate of subjects as(More)
The region of the lateral thorax, previously identified as an area of high heat transfer during cold water immersion, was investigated using heat flow discs and thermography to determine values of local heat flow and surface temperature before, during and after immersion. The effect of different positions of the arms on local heat flow from the torso was(More)
General anesthesia causes a marked hypoxia in ruminants. We compared this phenomenon with anaesthesia related changes in the dog. Under alfentanil/etomidat anaesthesia some variables of the pulmonary circulation (TPR, PAP, PCWP) as well as arterial and venous blood gases and saturation (HbO2, pO2, ph) in dogs, sheep and calves were measured and calculated.(More)
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