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Cardiovascular diseases are often considered to be a predominantly male health problem, and it has been suggested that testosterone exerts deleterious effects on cardiovascular function; however, few experimental studies support this suggestion. Moreover, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) underlying vascular responses to testosterone is unknown. The(More)
PURPOSE Elevated plasma homocysteine has been implicated in glaucoma, a vision disorder characterized by retinal ganglion cell death. The toxic potential of homocysteine to ganglion cells is known, but the mechanisms are not clear. A mechanism of homocysteine-induced death of cerebral neurons is via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor overstimulation,(More)
Human Elongator complex, which plays a key role in transcript elongation in vitro assay, is incredibly similar in either components or function to its yeast counterpart. However, there are only a few studies focusing on its target gene characterization in vivo. We studied the effect of down-regulation of the human elongation protein 3 (hELP3) on the(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictor substances, yet paradoxically, Ang II may dilate certain vascular beds via an undefined mechanism. Ang II-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by the AT(1) receptor, whereas the relative expression and functional importance of the AT(2) receptor in regulating vascular resistance and blood(More)
BACKGROUND Attentional function is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, attention is mediated by acetylcholine. But, despite the widespread use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-I) to augment available acetylcholine in AD, measures of attentional function have not been used to assess the drug response. OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that as(More)
Although early studies demonstrated that exogenous estrogen lowered a woman's risk of cardiovascular disease, recent trials indicate that HRT actually increases the risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. However, there is no clear explanation for this discrepancy. Is estrogen a helpful or a harmful hormone in terms of cardiovascular function? This review(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular pathology and dysfunction are direct life-threatening outcomes resulting from atherosclerosis or vascular injury, which are primarily attributed to contractile smooth muscle cells (SMCs) dedifferentiation and proliferation by re-entering cell cycle. Increasing evidence suggests potent protective effects of G-protein coupled estrogen(More)
cAMP-dependent vasodilators are used to treat a variety of cardiovascular disorders; however, the signal transduction pathways and effector mechanisms stimulated by these agents are not fully understood. In the present study we demonstrate that cAMP-stimulating agents enhance the activity of the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca))(More)
A multitarget visual cancellation test was administered to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Attentional loads--physical similarity (number of features shared by target and distractors; 3 levels) and density (number of items per page; 3 levels)--were varied systematically. As physical similarity increased, both(More)
Sex steroids exert profound and controversial effects on cardiovascular function. For example, estrogens have been reported to either ameliorate or exacerbate coronary heart disease. Although estrogen dilates coronary arteries from a variety of species, the molecular basis for this acute, nongenomic effect is unclear. Moreover, we know very little of how(More)