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1. A variety of physiological properties of single motor units have been studied in the gastrocnemius muscle (primarily in the medial head) of pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats. Intracellular stimulation of individual motoneurones ensured functional isolation of the muscle units innervated by them.2. A system for muscle unit classification was developed(More)
For quantitative assessment of the primary torsion dystonias, a rating scale is proposed that has two sections--a Movement Scale, based on examination, and a Disability Scale, based on the patient's statements about seven activities of daily living. We assessed the validity of the Movement Scale by comparing scores with a ranking of patients according to(More)
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons of substantia nigra in the midbrain control voluntary movement, and their degeneration is the cause of Parkinson's disease. The complete set of genes required to specifically determine the development of midbrain DA subgroups is not known yet. We report here that mice lacking the bicoid-related homeoprotein Pitx3 fail to develop DA(More)
1. Motor units, defined as including a motoneurone (cell body, dendrites and axon) plus the muscle unit innervated, have been examined in the triceps surae motor pool of pentobarbital anaesthetized cats.2. The technique of intracellular stimulation and recording which was used permitted measurement of the axonal conduction velocity, post-spike(More)
The size and branching structure of the dendritic tree were studied in nine type-identified triceps surae alpha-motoneurons that were labeled intracellularly with horseradish peroxidase and reconstructed from serial sections in the light microscope. The average total membrane area (AN) for motoneurons of type S (slow-twitch) motor units was about 22%(More)
Mathematical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Laboratory of Neural Control, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland; Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; University Laboratory of Physiology, Oxford, United Kingdom; Division of Neuroscience,(More)
Mechanisms responsible for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopamine (DA) neuronal death remain unknown and in mice it is even unclear whether neuronal death does occur. In vitro studies suggest that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active metabolite of MPTP, kills neurons by apoptosis. Herein, we investigated whether(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is most commonly a sporadic illness, and is characterized by degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine (DA) neurons and abnormal cytoplasmic aggregates of alpha-synuclein. Rarely, PD may be caused by missense mutations in alpha-synuclein. MPTP, a neurotoxin that inhibits mitochondrial complex I, is a prototype for an environmental(More)
A method to characterize dynamical interdependence among nonlinear systems is derived based on mutual nonlinear prediction. Systems with nonlinear correlation will show mutual nonlinear prediction when standard analysis with linear cross correlation might fail. Mutual nonlinear prediction also provides information on the directionality of the coupling(More)