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1. A variety of physiological properties of single motor units have been studied in the gastrocnemius muscle (primarily in the medial head) of pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats. Intracellular stimulation of individual motoneurones ensured functional isolation of the muscle units innervated by them.2. A system for muscle unit classification was developed(More)
For quantitative assessment of the primary torsion dystonias, a rating scale is proposed that has two sections--a Movement Scale, based on examination, and a Disability Scale, based on the patient's statements about seven activities of daily living. We assessed the validity of the Movement Scale by comparing scores with a ranking of patients according to(More)
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons of substantia nigra in the midbrain control voluntary movement, and their degeneration is the cause of Parkinson's disease. The complete set of genes required to specifically determine the development of midbrain DA subgroups is not known yet. We report here that mice lacking the bicoid-related homeoprotein Pitx3 fail to develop DA(More)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I. Force transducers designed for chronic implantation were placed on the individual tendons of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles in the same hind-limb of adult cats. Electromyographic (EMG) and kinesiological data were also recorded. Force, EMG, and movement data obtained from intact, freely moving cats(More)
Mechanisms responsible for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopamine (DA) neuronal death remain unknown and in mice it is even unclear whether neuronal death does occur. In vitro studies suggest that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active metabolite of MPTP, kills neurons by apoptosis. Herein, we investigated whether(More)
We have previously shown that apoptotic natural cell death occurs within the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta of the rat postnatally. However, the occurrence of natural cell death in phenotypically defined dopaminergic neurons has not previously been identified, nor has its time course been defined in pre- or postnatal development. We therefore examined(More)
Many developing neural systems with peripheral projections depend on their target for trophic support during a critical period of natural cell death. Much less is known about central systems. That dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra may depend on their target, the striatum, during development is suggested by the presence of a natural apoptotic cell(More)
We have quantified degenerating cells during the postnatal development of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of normal rat. The cells are identified at the light microscope level by the characteristic morphologic appearance of large, rounded clumps of chromatin, stained intensely with both Nissl and silver stains. These cells were most numerous on(More)