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In the rat lumbar spinal cord the major supraspinal targets for lamina I projection neurons are the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), lateral parabrachial area (LPb) and periaqueductal grey matter (PAG). In this study we have estimated the number of lamina I neurons retrogradely labelled from each of these sites in the L4 segment, as well as the(More)
Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human(More)
The physiological characteristics of antidromically identified lamina I spinothalamic (STT) neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord were examined using quantitative thermal and mechanical stimuli in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. Cells belonging to the three main recognized classes were included based on categorization with natural cutaneous stimulation of(More)
Spreading depression (SD) is a profound but transient depolarization of neurons and glia that migrates across the cortical and subcortical gray at 2-5 mm/min. Under normoxic conditions, SD occurs during migraine aura where it precedes migraine pain but does not damage tissue. During stroke and head trauma, however, SD can arise repeatedly near the site of(More)
We found a class of lamina I spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons selectively excited by iontophoretic histamine. The responses of this class of neurons parallel the pure itching sensation this stimulus elicits in humans, and match the responses of peripheral C-fibers that have similar selectivity. These neurons have distinct central conduction velocities and(More)
It has been suggested that primary afferent C-fibres that respond to innocuous tactile stimuli are important in the sensation of pleasurable touch. Although it is known that C-tactile fibres terminate in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal cord, virtually all of the neurons in this region are interneurons, and currently it is not known how(More)
Noxious mechanical stimuli that are maintained for minutes produce a continuous sensation of pain in humans that augments during the stimulus. It has recently been shown with systematic force-controlled stimuli that, while all mechanically responsive nociceptors adapt to these stimuli, the basis for such pain can be ascribed to A-fiber rather than C-fiber(More)
Pyramidal neurons (PyNs) of the cortex are highly susceptible to acute stroke damage, yet "lower" brain regions like hypothalamus and brain stem better survive global ischemia. Here we show for the first time that a "lower" neuron population intrinsically resists acute strokelike injury. In rat brain slices deprived of oxygen and glucose (OGD), we imaged(More)
OBJECTIVE Accumulating evidence indicates that plastic changes can be maladaptive in nature, resulting in movement and neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to further the understanding of these neurophysiological changes in sensorimotor integration (SMI) using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and concurrent performance changes following a(More)
This study shows that two whole isolated preparations from the young mouse, the neocortical 'slab' and the hippocampal formation, are useful for imaging studies requiring both global monitoring using light transmittance (LT) imaging and high resolution cellular monitoring using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM). These preparations share advantages(More)