R. Dannenfelser

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Pharmaceutical excipients are commonly incorporated into parenteral formulations to increase solubility and stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The biocompatibility of these excipients is an important consideration during formulation development. Despite the importance of hemolytic potential of parenteral formulations, there is considerable(More)
Different formulation approaches were evaluated to ensure that the formulation of a poorly water soluble compound chosen during early development achieves optimum bioavailability. The insoluble compound has an aqueous solubility of 0.17 micro g/mL at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, a relatively high permeability (Caco2 P(app) = 6.1 x 10(-4) cm/min), and poor(More)
The pKa and intrinsic solubility of monomeric dexverapamil were determined from its pH-solubility profile to be 8.90 and 6.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The solubility of dexverapamil below pH 7.0 was higher than expected on the basis of the aforementioned values. This unusually high solubility is believed to be due to the self-association of cationic(More)
Flavopiridol [5,7-dihydroxy-8-(4-N-methyl-2-hydroxypyridyl)-6' -chloroflavone hydrochloride] is a flavonoid with weak electrolyte properties and an intrinsic aqueous solubility of 0.024 mg/mL. Neither cosolvency complexation, nor pH control alone can produce an acceptable 10 mg/mL formulation that will not precipitate when diluted with blood. However, a(More)
The objective of this paper was to identify oral bioavailability enhancing approaches for a poorly water-soluble research compound during drug discovery stages using minimal amounts of material. LCQ789 is a pBCS (preclinical BCS) Class II compound with extremely low aqueous solubility (<1 µg/mL) and high permeability, therefore, resulting in very low oral(More)
Experimental entropy of melting values for physical property estimation schemes, such as solubility and vapor pressure, are not readily available. In this study a semiempirical equation, which contains two molecular parameters, is used to estimate the total entropy of melting for a variety of pharmaceutically and environmentally relevant compounds. A(More)
Lyophilization of cosolvent systems may be a beneficial way of enhancing both physical and chemical stability of a drug product. The objective of this research is to establish whether cosolvent systems commonly used in the formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs can be successfully lyophilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was selected because it is(More)
Since the solubility of a compound represents the upper limit of the concentration that it can attain, it is often a limiting parameter in physical and biological processes. Solubility is often the rate-controlling factor in the uptake of substances (including drugs, nutrients and pollutants) by biological organisms (including plants, animals and man). A(More)
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