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We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to map the somatotopic organization of the primary motor cortex using voluntary movements of the hand, arm, and foot. Eight right-handed healthy subjects performed self-paced, repetitive, flexion/extension movements of the limbs while undergoing echo-planar imaging. Four subjects performed movements of(More)
GIS, with their predominantly visual communication of spatial information, may appear to have little to offer people with visual impairments or blindness. However, because GIS store and manage the spatial relations between objects, alternative, non-visual ways to communicate this information can be utilized. As such, modified GIS could provide people with(More)
A number of familial syndromes of bilateral polymicrogyria (PMG) have been described, but reported unilateral PMG cases have generally been sporadic. The authors identified four families in which unilateral right-sided PMG on MRI was present in more than one individual, with pathologic confirmation in one. Core clinical features included contralateral(More)
To determine if there is abnormal phenylalanine and biopterin metabolism in patients with dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), we measured plasma levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, biopterin, and neopterin at baseline, and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after an oral phenylalanine load (100 mg/kg). Seven adults with DRD, two severely affected children with DRD, and nine(More)
Mutations in the GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH) gene have been identified as a cause of two disorders: autosomal dominant hereditary progressive dystonia/dopa-responsive dystonia (HPD/DRD) and autosomal recessive GCH-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). Detailed clinical descriptions and genetic analysis of patients with phenotypes intermediate between(More)
On October 2, 1919, President Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke that paralyzed the left half of his body. Wilson's stroke forced the American public to confront stroke, and laypeople came to identify stroke as a nervous disorder, rather than a condition rooted solely in psychological phenomena. His medical care was overseen by Cary Grayson, his personal(More)