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Pathological disturbances of mood may follow a 'bipolar' course, in which normal moods alternate with both depression and mania, or a 'unipolar' course, in which only depression occurs. Both bipolar and unipolar disorders can be heritable illnesses associated with neurochemical, neuroendocrine and autonomic abnormalities. The neurobiological basis for these(More)
Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. OBJECTIVE To examine the distribution and genetic structure of(More)
An invariant feature of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) is a relative deficit in the capacity for reciprocal social behavior (RSB). The authors acquired teacher reports of RSB in 287 schoolchildren and parent reports of RSB in 158 child psychiatric patients using a new research instrument, the Social Reciprocity Scale. Total scores on this measure(More)
BACKGROUND Subgenual prefrontal cortex (SGPFC) volume reduction has been reported in middle age adults with major depression (MD) or bipolar affective disorder. In this study, the authors test the hypothesis that SGPFC reduction is present in adolescent onset MD, and examine differences in the magnitude of reduction in younger versus older women. METHODS(More)
The pathophysiology of dystonia is unclear, but several clues implicate striatal dopamine dysfunction. In contrast, the causal relationship between striatal dopamine deficiency and parkinsonism is well defined. We now suggest that parkinsonism or dystonia may occur following striatal dopamine deficiency. Baboons treated with intracarotid(More)
OBJECTIVE To create an obsessive-compulsive disorder subscale (OCS) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and to determine its internal consistency, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power to identify obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. METHODS Three samples of equal size (n = 73) of children and(More)
This paper describes cortical analysis of 19 high resolution MRI subvolumes of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a region that has been implicated in major depressive disorder. An automated Bayesian segmentation is used to delineate the MRI subvolumes into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and partial volumes of either CSF/GM or(More)
BACKGROUND Most diagnostic nomenclatures do not allow for the concurrent diagnosis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinic-based studies suggest autistic symptoms are common in children with ADHD, but such studies are prone to referral bias. This study assesses whether children with ADHD selected from the general twin(More)
BACKGROUND Autistic disorder (AD) is a disabling oligogenic condition characterized by severe social impairment. Subthreshold autistic social impairments are known to aggregate in the family members of autistic probands; therefore, we conducted this study to examine the intergenerational transmission of such traits in the general population. METHODS The(More)