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Pathological disturbances of mood may follow a 'bipolar' course, in which normal moods alternate with both depression and mania, or a 'unipolar' course, in which only depression occurs. Both bipolar and unipolar disorders can be heritable illnesses associated with neurochemical, neuroendocrine and autonomic abnormalities. The neurobiological basis for these(More)
Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. OBJECTIVE To examine the distribution and genetic structure of(More)
An invariant feature of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) is a relative deficit in the capacity for reciprocal social behavior (RSB). The authors acquired teacher reports of RSB in 287 schoolchildren and parent reports of RSB in 158 child psychiatric patients using a new research instrument, the Social Reciprocity Scale. Total scores on this measure(More)
This paper describes cortical analysis of 19 high resolution MRI subvolumes of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a region that has been implicated in major depressive disorder. An automated Bayesian segmentation is used to delineate the MRI subvolumes into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and partial volumes of either CSF/GM or(More)
In the mouse, the light-sensitive pool of cAMP can be eliminated in the dark by application of the dopamine D2-like receptor agonists LY 171555 (quinpirole), (+)-N0437 (2-[N-(n-propyl)-N-2-(thienylethylamino)-5-hydroxytetralin]) , or (+)-3-PPP [3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine hydrochloride]. The rank-order affinity of the ability of the D2-like(More)
OBJECTIVE Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable but clinically heterogeneous syndrome. The study examined the familiality and heritability of ADHD subtypes as defined by DSM-IV and by latent-class analysis in a population sample of adolescent female twins. METHOD To determine which elements of ADHD cluster together,(More)
In order to study the properties of the D2-like dopamine receptors, D2, D3 and D4 clones were transfected into mouse Ltk- fibroblasts, CCL1.3, and a neuronal mesencephalic cell line, MN9D. Most of the derived antagonist and agonist inhibition constants were the same for a given receptor in either cell line as determined by saturation and competition binding(More)
The pathophysiology of dystonia is unclear, but several clues implicate striatal dopamine dysfunction. In contrast, the causal relationship between striatal dopamine deficiency and parkinsonism is well defined. We now suggest that parkinsonism or dystonia may occur following striatal dopamine deficiency. Baboons treated with intracarotid(More)
BACKGROUND Subgenual prefrontal cortex (SGPFC) volume reduction has been reported in middle age adults with major depression (MD) or bipolar affective disorder. In this study, the authors test the hypothesis that SGPFC reduction is present in adolescent onset MD, and examine differences in the magnitude of reduction in younger versus older women. METHODS(More)