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The success of Mycobacterium species as pathogens depends on their ability to maintain an infection inside the phagocytic vacuole of the macrophage. Although the bacteria are reported to modulate maturation of their intracellular vacuoles, the nature of such modifications is unknown. In this study, vacuoles formed around Mycobacterium avium failed to(More)
Video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast microscopy has revealed new features of axonal transport in the giant axon of the squid, where no movement had been detected previously by conventional microscopy. The newly discovered dominant feature is vast numbers of "submicroscopic" particles, probably 30- to 50-nanometer vesicles and other(More)
Protozoa living in fresh water are subjected to a hypotonic environment. Water flows across their plasma membrane since their cytosol is always hypertonic to the environment. Many wall-less protozoa have an organelle, the contractile vacuole complex (CVC), that collects and expels excess water. Recent progress shows that most, if not all, CVCs are composed(More)
Our previous study has shown that the decorated tubules (collectively known as the decorated spongiome) of the contractile vacuole complex (CVC) in Paramecium are the site of fluid segregation, as the binding of microinjected monoclonal antibody (mAb) DS-1 to the tubules reduced the CVC's fluid output. In this study, we showed by immunogold labeling on(More)
A Dictyostelium membrane fraction rich in vacuolar proton pumps, previously described by Nolta et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18,318-18,323, 1991), was used as the immunogen for production of monoclonal antibodies. We obtained antibodies that recognized polypeptides of 100 kDa and 68 kDa, corresponding to the two largest subunits of the vacuolar proton pump.(More)
Cellular membranes are made in a cell's biosynthetic pathway and are composed of similar biochemical constituents. Nevertheless, they become differentiated as membrane components are sorted into different membrane-limited compartments. We summarize the morphological and immunological similarities and differences seen in the membranes of the various(More)
Data, information and knowledge are very important commodities for organisations. The effective utilisation of these ‘commodities’ is increasingly the only way for organisations to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. In the field of mechanical engineering there are vast numbers of information and knowledge sources that are utilised throughout the(More)
Native microtubules prepared from extruded and dissociated axoplasm have been observed to transport organelles and vesicles unidirectionally in fresh preparations and more slowly and bidirectionally in older preparations. Both endogenous and exogenous (fluorescent polystyrene) particles in rapid Brownian motion alight on and adhere to microtubules and are(More)
  • R D Allen
  • BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular…
  • 2000
The contractile vacuole (CV) is an osmoregulatory organelle whose mechanisms of function are poorly understood. Immunological studies in the last decade have demonstrated abundant proton-translocating V-type ATPases (V-ATPases) in its membrane that could provide the energy, from proton electrochemical gradients, for moving ions into the CV to be followed by(More)
In vivo K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-) activities in the cytosol and the contractile vacuole fluid of Paramecium multimicronucleatum were determined in cells adapted to a number of external osmolarities and ionic conditions by using ion-selective microelectrodes. It was found that: (1) under standardized saline conditions K(+) and Cl(-) were the major(More)