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The secretome of a parasite in its definitive host can be considered to be its genome in trans, to the extent that secreted products encoded by the parasite fulfill their function in the host milieu. The 'extended phenotype' of the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, is of particular interest because of the evidence that infection results in potent(More)
Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic helminths, remains a serious human disease in the tropics. Cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni infect their hosts by direct skin penetration, aided by secretions from acetabular and head glands. Both proteolytic and immunomodulatory properties have been ascribed to the released material, but to date only five isoforms of(More)
BACKGROUND The membrane-associated and membrane-spanning constituents of the Schistosoma mansoni tegument surface, the parasite's principal interface with the host bloodstream, have recently been characterized using proteomic techniques. Biotinylation of live worms using membrane-impermeant probes revealed that only a small subset of the proteins was(More)
The blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni can live for years in the hepatic portal system of its human host and so must possess very effective mechanisms of immune evasion. The key to understanding how these operate lies in defining the molecular organisation of the exposed parasite surface. The adult worm is covered by a syncytial tegument, bounded externally by(More)
Differential analysis of immune responses to schistosomes has routinely been performed using complex mixtures of soluble proteins from various life-cycle stages, on the assumption that these differed significantly in composition. Proteomic techniques now allow us to characterise and compare such mixtures. The soluble proteins from cercariae,(More)
Schistosoma mansoni is a well-adapted blood-dwelling parasitic helminth, persisting for decades in its human host despite being continually exposed to potential immune attack. Here, we describe in detail micro-exon genes (MEG) in S. mansoni, some present in multiple copies, which represent a novel molecular system for creating protein variation through the(More)
Proteasomes are molecular machines found in virtually all cells that provide one of the mechanisms for protein turnover. We have analysed the 20S proteasome of Schistosoma mansoni, the first multimeric complex isolated from this helminth parasite. Three chromatographic steps were employed to yield a highly homogeneous preparation. 2-DE of the purified(More)
The schistosome tegument provides a major interface with the host blood stream in which it resides. Our recent proteomic studies have identified a range of proteins present in the complex tegument structure, and two models of protective immunity have implicated surface proteins as mediating antigens. We have used the QconCAT technique to evaluate the(More)
The parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni is a major public health concern in many developing countries. Glycoconjugates, and in particular the carbohydrate component of these products, represent the main immunogenic challenge to the host and could therefore represent one of the crucial determinants for successful parasite establishment. Here we report a(More)
The intestinal helminth parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri offers a tractable experimental model for human hookworm infections such as Ancylostoma duodenale and veterinary parasites such as Haemonchus contortus. Parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products represent the major focus for immunological and biochemical analyses, and contain(More)