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The phenotype of severe congenital hydrocephalus secondary to neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) gene mutations includes the distinct finding of brainstem corticospinal tract hypoplasia. Using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), we failed to demonstrate anisotropy in the corticospinal tracts of the basis pontis in 4 affected boys with L1CAM mutations.(More)
Acquisition and retention of tolerance to ethanol's rate-decreasing effects on operant performance were examined in rats which received a 52-day regimen of ethanol or saline injections prior to and/or after each daily session. Eight groups of rats differed on: (a) number of days with intoxicated practice (pre-session ethanol); (b) intermittent (spaced) or(More)
Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a standard two-choice Drug 1-Drug 2 discrimination task utilizing 3.0 mg/kg chlordiazepoxide (CDP, an anxiolytic drug) and 20 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, an anxiogenic drug) as discriminative stimuli under a VR 5-15 schedule of food reinforcement. Saline tests conducted at specific time points after acute(More)
Pregnant rats were intubated during days 10-14 of gestation with equal volumes of isocaloric ethanol-sucrose solutions. Groups 8g, 4g, and 0g received one-half these amounts of ethanol per kg body weight twice each treatment day. Although these maternal treatments did not significantly affect offspring birth weights, activity levels during classical(More)
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 drastically reduced the supply of amphetamines available to the public. It also inadvertently prompted the emergence of a new drug industry, namely the marketing of caffeine/phenylethylamine combinations packaged to look like many of the previously available amphetamine preparations. The findings of one recent(More)
The effects of caffeine upon the discriminative and rate-altering effects of cocaine were examined in rats. Using a food-reinforced two-lever operant procedure, 12 Sprague-Dawley male rats were trained to discriminate between 10 mg/kg cocaine and saline. Stimulus generalization tests with both cocaine and amphetamine resulted in a dose-related increase in(More)
Dose-effect analyses were used to monitor the development of tolerance for ethanol's effects on FR30 operant performance in rats under different conditions of chronic ethanol exposure: (a) pre-session ethanol injections (PRE) vs. post-session ethanol injections (POST) in Experiment 1; and (b) an ethanol liquid diet (ED) vs. a control diet (CD) in Experiment(More)
The effects of pre-session and post-session daily ethanol injections on the development and loss of tolerance to ethanol's effects on fixed ratio operant performance in rats was assessed using a cumulative dosing procedure. Daily pre-session ethanol administration produced a greater decrease in ethanol sensitivity than did daily post-session ethanol. Both(More)
Although caffeine-phenylethylamine combinations are widely available as over-the-counter medications or as "legal" stimulants, little information is available concerning their behavioral pharmacology or abuse potential. In the present study, rats were trained in a food-reward, two-lever operant drug discrimination paradigm to differentially respond after(More)