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Variation within genes has important implications for all biological traits. We identified 3899 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were present within 313 genes from 82 unrelated individuals of diverse ancestry, and we organized the SNPs into 4304 different haplotypes. Each gene had several variable SNPs and haplotypes that were present in all(More)
The Notch signaling pathway is a conserved intercellular signaling mechanism that is essential for proper embryonic development in numerous metazoan organisms. We have examined the in vivo role of the Jagged2 (Jag2) gene, which encodes a ligand for the Notch family of transmembrane receptors, by making a targeted mutation that removes a domain of the(More)
In this paper, we present a full velocity difference model for a car-following theory based on the previous models in the literature. To our knowledge, the model is an improvement over the previous ones theoretically, because it considers more aspects in car-following process than others. This point is verified by numerical simulation. Then we investigate(More)
Snail family genes encode DNA binding zinc finger proteins that act as transcriptional repressors. Mouse embryos deficient for the Snail (Sna) gene exhibit defects in the formation of the mesoderm germ layer. In Sna(-/-) mutant embryos, a mesoderm layer forms and mesodermal marker genes are induced but the mutant mesoderm is morphologically abnormal.(More)
The Slug gene encodes a zinc finger protein, homologous to the product of the Drosophila Snail gene, that is implicated in the generation and migration of both mesoderm and neural crest cells in several vertebrate species. We describe here the cloning and genetic analysis of the mouse Slug (Slugh) gene. Slugh encodes a 269-amino-acid protein the shares 92%(More)
The Snf1 protein kinase plays a central role in the response to glucose starvation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously, we showed that two-hybrid interaction between Snf1 and its activating subunit, Snf4, is inhibited by high levels of glucose. These findings, together with biochemical evidence that Snf1 and Snf4 remain associated in cells(More)
The Notch gene family encodes large transmembrane receptors that are components of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling mechanism. To assess the in vivo role of the Notch2 gene, we constructed a targeted mutation, Notch2(del1). Unexpectedly, we found that alternative splicing of the Notch2(del1) mutant allele leads to the production of two(More)
The SNF1 protein kinase is broadly conserved in eukaryotes and has been implicated in responses to environmental and nutritional stress. In yeast, the SNF1 kinase has a central role in the response to glucose starvation. SNF1 is associated with its activating subunit, SNF4, and other proteins in complexes. Using the two-hybrid system, we show that(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is involved in tumor development and progression. Our earlier study on gene expression profile in human gliomas by microarray found that some members of Wnt family were overexpressed. To further investigate the involvement of Wnt signaling in gliomas, the expression of core components of(More)
The Snf1 protein kinase family has been conserved in eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Snf1 is essential for transcription of glucose-repressed genes in response to glucose starvation. The direct interaction between Snf1 and its activating subunit, Snf4, within the kinase complex is regulated by the glucose signal. Glucose inhibition of the(More)