R C Dewitt

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OBJECTIVE To examine the levels of a Th1 IgA-inhibiting cytokine (interferon gamma) and the Th2 IgA-stimulating cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) within the intestine of animals manipulated with enteral or parenteral nutrition, and to correlate these cytokine alterations with intestinal IgA levels. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Enteral(More)
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) decreases intestinal IgA and levels of Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 within the supernatants of intestinal homogenates. These cytokines are known to stimulate IgA production in vitro by cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Glutamine (GLN) supplementation of TPN normalizes GALT mass and cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND Addition of 2% glutamine (GLN), a specific lymphocyte fuel, prevents deleterious effects of TPN on gut-associated lymphoid tissue and IgA while preserving IgA-mediated upper respiratory immunity to influenza virus. We examined whether a 2% GLN-enhanced TPN solution preserves respiratory immunity to a lethal and clinically relevant pneumonia(More)
The gastrointestinal tract functions not only to absorb nutrients, it also plays an important immunologic role during health and critical illness. Under experimental and certain clinical conditions, stimulating the gut attentuates the stress response and avoids mucosal atrophy and increases permeability. Gut stimulation prevents atrophy of the(More)
Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the primary mucosal Ig and has been shown to mediate nasotracheal (NT) mucosal immunity in normal immune BALB/c mice. This finding has been challenged by a report of NT immunity without IgA in knockout mice, suggesting that IgA may not be necessary for the protection of mucosal surfaces. Although other protective mechanisms may(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects on mucosal selective transport of polymeric IgA (pIgA) and the ability of exogenous pIgA to provide protection despite altered mucosal transport. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Parenteral nutrition significantly impairs established antipseudomonal immunity and IgA-mediated antiviral immunity in association with gut-associated(More)
This article briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of enteral nutrition, which appears to be the preferred method of nutritional support in critically ill patients. Patients who benefit the most from this type of support, as well as the administration and route preferences in enteral nutrition, are discussed. In addition, the different types of(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the ability of bombesin (BBS) to recover gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and preserve immunity in a lethal model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps) pneumonia in mice receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA TPN causes depression of mucosal immunity compared with enterally fed animals, which may explain the(More)
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