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IL-6 and APRIL influence the growth, differentiation, and survival of normal and neoplastic Ab-forming cells (AFC). In this study, we identify two subsets of myeloid cells that associate with the AFC and are the main producers of these factors during a T-dependent Ab response to alum-precipitated protein in mouse lymph nodes. First CD11c(+)CD8alpha(-)(More)
While IL-4 directs CD4 T cells to produce Th2 cytokines (including IL-4, IL-13, IL-5) in vitro it has been shown that production of these cytokines can be induced in vivo in the absence of IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling. The present report shows that CD8 as well as CD4 T cells activated through their TCR, in vitro upregulate the Th2-features - IL-4, IL-13,(More)
CD4 T helper (Th) cell differentiation defined by in vitro cytokine-directed culture systems leaves major gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms driving divergent Th differentiation. This is evident from our analysis of the response of mouse ovalbumin-specific CD4 T cells to different forms of ovalbumin that induce markedly distinct responses in vivo. We(More)
NF-κB1-dependent signaling directs the development of CD4(+) Th2 cells during allergic airway inflammation and protective responses to helminth infection. Here, we show that IL-4 and IL-13 production is NF-κB1-dependent in mouse OVA-specific CD4(+) (OTII) T cells responding to alum-precipitated OVA (alumOVA) immunization. More surprisingly, we found that(More)
Consensus guidelines on anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) testing have been developed to help minimise laboratory variation in the performance and reporting of assays for these antibodies. These guidelines include minimum and optional recommendations for the following aspects of anti-beta2GPI testing and reporting: (1) isotype of anti-beta2GPI(More)
We evaluated 13 children with cerebral palsy who had birthweights under 1085 g. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the head was obtained, the findings were compared, and the neonatal records were reviewed. The individual children were classified as to the type of cerebral palsy. On MRI, all had severe injury to the inferior cerebellar hemispheres, mostly(More)
Neonatal ferrets may be passively immunized following maternal vaccination with formalin-inactivated influenza A virus vaccine, but the level of protection from partial to complete depends upon the number of doses used to vaccinate the mother, the presence or absence of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, whether or not the mothers were 'primed' by prior infection(More)
Synthetic retinoid-related molecules, such as N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide) and 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) induce apoptosis in a variety of malignant cells. The mechanism(s) of action of these compounds does not appear to involve retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs),(More)
Alum-precipitated protein (alum protein) vaccines elicit long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses that prevent bacterial exotoxins and viruses from entering cells. Typically, these vaccines induce CD4 T cells to become T helper 2 (Th2) cells that induce Ig class switching to IgG1. We now report that CD8 T cells also respond to alum proteins,(More)