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Gaseous HCl generated from a variety of sources is ubiquitous in both outdoor and indoor air. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(y)) are also globally distributed, because NO formed in combustion processes is oxidized to NO(2), HNO(3), N(2)O(5) and a variety of other nitrogen oxides during transport. Deposition of HCl and NO(y) onto surfaces is commonly regarded as(More)
A new algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum, and other low-lying minima, of a potential energy surface (PES) of biological molecules. The algorithm synergetically combines three well-known global optimization methods: the diffusion equation method (DEM), which involves smoothing the PES; a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm; and evolutionary(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare growth factor receptor expression in papilla of Vater cancer and pancreatic cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Cancer of the papilla of Vater has a much better prognosis than pancreatic cancer. Earlier symptoms may result in earlier diagnosis, but different biologic growth behaviors and genetic alterations might also be explanations. (More)
The harmonic approximation for the potential energy of proteins is known to be inadequate for the calculation of many protein properties. To study the effect of anharmonic terms on protein vibrations, the anharmonic wave functions for the ground state and low-lying excited states of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) were calculated. The results(More)
Electrospray ionization transfers thermally labile biomolecules, such as proteins, from solution into the gas phase, where they can be studied by mass spectrometry. Covalent bonds are generally preserved during and after the phase transition, but it is less clear to what extent noncovalent interactions are affected by the new gaseous environment. Here, we(More)
The study of evaporation of water from biological macromolecules is important for the understanding of electrospray mass spectrometry experiments. In electrospray ionization (ESI), electrically charged nanoscale droplets are formed from solutions of, for example, proteins. Then evaporation of the solvent leads to dry protein ions that can be analyzed in the(More)
We present a new approach for peptide cyclization during solid phase synthesis under highly acidic conditions. Our approach involves simultaneous in situ deprotection, cyclization and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) cleavage of the peptide, which is achieved by forming an amide bond between a lysine side chain and a succinic acid linker at the peptide(More)
Evidence from cross section data indicates that ubiquitin +13 ions lose their secondary and tertiary structure in mass spectrometric experiments. These transitions from the folded state into the near linear final structure occur at the experimental temperatures on time scales that are far too long for conventional molecular dynamics simulations. In this(More)
Noble-gas chemistry has been undergoing a renaissance in recent years, due in large part to noble-gas hydrides, HNgY, where Ng = noble-gas atom and Y = electronegative fragment. These molecules are exceptional because of their relatively weak bonding and large dipole moments, which lead to strongly enhanced effects of the environment, complexation, and(More)
Progress in the study of a new class of chemically bound compounds of noble-gas atoms is reviewed. The focus is on rare-gas molecules of the form HNgY, where Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y is an electronegative group, prepared by photolysis of HY in the rare-gas matrix. Other related types of new molecules of noble-gas atoms are discussed as well. Topics(More)