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Methanol is the predominant oxygenated volatile organic compound in the troposphere, where it can significantly influence the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere. However, we do not understand which processes control oceanic concentrations, and hence, whether the oceans are a source or a sink to the atmosphere. We report the first methanol loss rates in(More)
The oceans contribute significantly to the global emissions of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases, notably those containing sulfur, nitrogen and halogens. Such gases play critical roles not only in global biogeochemical cycling but also in a wide range of atmospheric processes including marine aerosol formation and modification,(More)
New reagents containing high concentrations of urea are developed for micro-titration of calcium and magnesium, with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (E.D.T.A.) as titrant and Corinth Ca (Plasmocorinth B) as indicator. Magnesium is determined as the difference between calcium plus magnesium and calcium. Quantitative aspects are studied, and accurate(More)
In the troposphere, methanol (CH3OH) is present ubiquitously and second in abundance among organic gases after methane. In the surface ocean, methanol represents a supply of energy and carbon for marine microbes. Here we report direct measurements of air-sea methanol transfer along a ∼10,000-km north-south transect of the Atlantic. The flux of methanol was(More)
The role of the ocean in the cycling of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) remains largely unanswered due to a paucity of datasets. We describe the method development of a membrane inlet-proton transfer reaction/mass spectrometer (MI-PTR/MS) as an efficient method of analysing methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone in seawater. Validation of the(More)
A method is described for the direct colorimetric determination of urea in biological fluids. The method depends on the reaction (first described by Wheatley, 1948) between urea, diacetylmonoxime, and phenylanthranilic acid in the presence of controlled amounts of oxidant; chloride ions are included to sensitize the reaction; manganous ions stabilize the(More)
Methods are described for the determination of microgram quantities of biological copper in aqueous medium as the intensely coloured oxalyldihydrazide-acetaldehyde complex (molar extinction coefficient 23,000 to 23,500). The methods are applicable on a routine basis to any biological material, in particular to serum, urine, or tissues, such as liver, brain,(More)