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The tripeptide glutathione is the most abundant thiol/disulfide component of the eukaryotic cell and is known to be present in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Accordingly, the thiol/disulfide redox status of the endoplasmic reticulum lumen is defined by the status of glutathione, and it has been assumed that reduced and oxidized glutathione form the(More)
uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) activates plasminogen with high efficiency when bound to its cellular receptor uPAR, but only after a prolonged lag phase during which generated plasmin activates pro-uPA. How the activity of this proteolytic system might be rapidly initiated is unknown. We have now found that 2 monocytic cell lines display(More)
We have demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) binds specifically to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in a functionally relevant manner, both increasing plasminogen activation and decreasing tPA inhibition (Ellis, V., and Whawell, S. A. (1997) Blood 90, 2312-2322; Werner, F., Razzaq, T. M., and Ellis, V. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274,(More)
Extracellular proteases of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and serine protease families participate in many aspects of tumour growth and metastasis. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, we have undertaken a comprehensive survey of the expression of these enzymes and of their natural inhibitors in 44 cases of human prostate cancer and 23 benign(More)
A variety of proteases have the potential to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby influencing the behaviour of cells by removing physical barriers to cell migration, altering cell-ECM interactions or releasing ECM-associated growth factors. The plasminogen activation system of serine proteases is particularly implicated in this pericellular(More)
Maspin is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily that lacks protease inhibitory ability, although displaying tumor metastasis-suppressing activity resulting from its influence on cell migration, invasion, proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion. The molecular mechanisms of these actions of maspin are as yet undefined. Here, we sought(More)
The potential for the use of in-silico models of disease in progression monitoring is becoming increasingly recognised, as well as its contribution to the development of complete curative processes. In this paper we report the development of a hybrid cellular automaton model to mimic the growth of avascular tumours, including the infusion of a bioreductive(More)
Maspin is a serpin that has multiple effects on cell behavior, including inhibition of migration. How maspin mediates these diverse effects remains unclear, as it is devoid of protease inhibitory activity. We have previously shown that maspin rapidly inhibits the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), suggesting the involvement of direct(More)
Cancer metastasis is a complex multistep process which allows cancer cells to establish new tumours in distant organs. The process of metastasis involves cell migration and invasion; it is what makes cancer a fatal disease. The efficiency of most cancer treatments depends on metastasis suppression. Maspin is a type II tumour metastasis suppressor which has(More)
Raising the concentration of phenylalanine and other amino acids in MEM leads to the inhibition of growth and in some cases to death of A9. Balb 3T3 , SV40 Balb 3T3 (SVT2), CHO, and WI38. All cells tested exhibited some similar senstivities to certain of the amino acids. but there were some unique differences. Phenylalanine-resistant mutants (Pher) of A9(More)