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The mechanical response of a biological material to applied forces reflects deformation mechanisms occurring within a hierarchical architecture extending over several distinct length scales. Characterizing and in turn predicting the behaviour of such a material requires an understanding of the mechanical properties of the substructures within the hierarchy,(More)
Collagen, a molecule consisting of three braided protein helices, is the primary building block of many biological tissues including bone, tendon, cartilage, and skin. Staggered arrays of collagen molecules form fibrils, which arrange into higher-ordered structures such as fibers and fascicles. Because collagen plays a crucial role in determining the(More)
Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with complex hierarchical structures requires knowledge of the properties at each structural level. Whole tissues have been studied extensively, but less is known about the mechanical behavior at the submicron, fibrillar level. Using a microelectromechanical systems platform, in vitro coupled(More)
Natural composite materials are renowned for their mechanical strength and toughness: despite being highly mineralized, with the organic component constituting not more than a few per cent of the composite material, the fracture toughness exceeds that of single crystals of the pure mineral by two to three orders of magnitude. The judicious placement of the(More)
Collagen, an essential building block of connective tissues, possesses useful mechanical properties due to its hierarchical structure. However, little is known about the mechanical properties of collagen fibril, an intermediate structure between the collagen molecule and connective tissue. Here, we report the results of systematic molecular dynamics(More)
Mechanical testing of collagenous tissues at different length scales will provide improved understanding of the mechanical behavior of structures such as skin, tendon, and bone, and also guide the development of multiscale mechanical models. Using a microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS) platform, stress-strain response curves up to failure of type I(More)
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Despite their mobility differences under occlusal loads, a natural tooth and an implant are often used together to support fixed prostheses. In some situations, tooth/implant-supported partial prostheses include cantilever extensions, especially in the posterior region where the bone is inadequate for placement of an additional implant.(More)
Traditional single-fiber pull-out type experiments were conducted on individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix using a novel technique. Remarkably, the results are qualitatively consistent with the predictions of continuum fracture mechanics models. Unstable interface crack propagation occurred at short MWNT embedments,(More)
In the absence of a corrosive environment, brittle materials such as silicon should be immune to cyclic fatigue. However, fatigue effects are well known in micrometer-sized polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) samples tested in air. To investigate the origins of this phenomenon in polysilicon, we developed a fixed-grip fracture mechanics microspecimen but(More)
Geo-materials such as vuggy carbonates are known to exhibit multiple spatial scales. A common manifestation of spatial scales is the presence of (at least) two different scales of pores, which is commonly referred to as double porosity. To complicate things, the pore-network at each scale exhibits different permeability, and these networks are connected(More)