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Microtubules are cytoskeletal polymers of tubulin involved in many cellular functions. Their dynamic instability is controlled by numerous compounds and proteins, including colchicine and stathmin family proteins. The way in which microtubule instability is regulated at the molecular level has remained elusive, mainly because of the lack of appropriate(More)
Members of the serum paraoxonase (PON) family have been identified in mammals and other vertebrates, and in invertebrates. PONs exhibit a wide range of physiologically important hydrolytic activities, including drug metabolism and detoxification of nerve agents. PON1 and PON3 reside on high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 'good cholesterol') and are involved in(More)
BACKGROUND Fasciculin (FAS), a 61-residue polypeptide purified from mamba venom, is a three-fingered toxin which is a powerful reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Solution of the three-dimensional structure of the AChE/FAS complex would provide the first structure of a three-fingered toxin complexed with its target. RESULTS The structure(More)
Radiation damage is an inherent problem in x-ray crystallography. It usually is presumed to be nonspecific and manifested as a gradual decay in the overall quality of data obtained for a given crystal as data collection proceeds. Based on third-generation synchrotron x-ray data, collected at cryogenic temperatures, we show for the enzymes Torpedo(More)
Accurate modeling of image formation in cryo-electron microscopy is an important requirement for quantitative image interpretation and optimization of the data acquisition strategy. Here we present a forward model that accounts for the specimen's scattering properties, microscope optics, and detector response. The specimen interaction potential is(More)
In Escherichia coli, protein degradation is performed by several proteolytic machines, including ClpAP. Generally, the substrate specificity of these machines is determined by chaperone components, such as ClpA. In some cases, however, the specificity is modified by adaptor proteins, such as ClpS. Here we report the 2.5 A resolution crystal structure of(More)
The extreme diversity in substrate specificity, and in the regulation mechanism of arogenate/prephenate dehydrogenase enzymes in nature, makes a comparative structural study of these enzymes of great interest. We report here on the biochemical and structural characterization of arogenate dehydrogenase from Synechocystis sp. (TyrAsy). This work paves the way(More)
Human beta(2)-glycoprotein I is a heavily glycosylated five-domain plasma membrane-adhesion protein, which has been implicated in blood coagulation and clearance of apoptotic bodies from the circulation. It is also the key antigen in the autoimmune disease anti-phospholipid syndrome. The crystal structure of beta(2)-glycoprotein I isolated from human plasma(More)
SecA is the preprotein translocase ATPase subunit and a superfamily 2 (SF2) RNA helicase. Here we present the 2 A crystal structures of the Escherichia coli SecA homodimer in the apo form and in complex with ATP, ADP and adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (AMP-PNP). Each monomer contains the SF2 ATPase core (DEAD motor) built of two domains(More)
Vinblastine is one of several tubulin-targeting Vinca alkaloids that have been responsible for many chemotherapeutic successes since their introduction in the clinic as antitumour drugs. In contrast with the two other classes of small tubulin-binding molecules (Taxol and colchicine), the binding site of vinblastine is largely unknown and the molecular(More)