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Nowadays, the multi-scale modelling of wood has a great need for measurements of structural, chemical and mechanical properties at the lowest level. In this paper, the viscoelastic properties in the layers of a wood cell wall are investigated using the contact resonance mode of an atomic force microscope (CR-AFM). A detailed experimental protocol suitable(More)
It has been demonstrated that the resonance frequency of the cantilever in atomic force modulation microscopy can be used to study local mechanical properties. We developed a numerical method to achieve mapping of the resonance frequency without significant modification of the device. By making the assumption that the resonance spectrum can be approximated(More)
It is shown that both dc and ac electrostatic force gradients can be observed under secondary vacuum by means of phase shifts under amplitude-controlled AFM and a double-pass method. Different flexure mode orders and electrical frequencies have been explored. A theoretical model based on the linear behaviour of the mechanical oscillator allows one to(More)
We present a simple method to quantitatively image the dielectric permittivity of soft materials at nanoscale using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) by means of the double pass method. The EFM experiments are based on the measurement of the frequency shifts of the oscillating tip biased at two different voltages. A numerical treatment based on the(More)
In this work we present a new AFM based approach to measure the local dielectric response of polymer films at the nanoscale by means of Amplitude Modulation Electrostatic Force Microscopy (AM-EFM). The proposed experimental method is based on the measurement of the tip-sample force via the detection of the second harmonic component of the photosensor signal(More)
Dielectric relaxation (DR) has shown to be a very useful technique to study dielectric materials like polymers and other glass formers, giving valuable information about the molecular dynamics of the system at different length and time scales. However, the standard DR techniques have a fundamental limitation: they have no spatial resolution. This is of(More)
R. Arinero, C. Riedel, G. A. Schwartz, G. Lévêque, A. Alegría, Ph. Tordjeman, N. E. Israeloff, M. Ramonda and J. Colmenero 1 IES, UMR CNRS 5214, Université Montpellier II, CC 083, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex, France 2 Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizábal 4, 20018 San Sebastián, Spain. 3 Departamento de(More)
In order to measure the dielectric permittivity of thin insulting layers, we developed a method based on electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) experiments coupled with numerical simulations. This method allows to characterize the dielectric properties of materials without any restrictions of film thickness, tip radius and tip-sample distance. The EFM(More)
In this work we present a new AFM based approach to measure the local dielectric response of polymer films at the nanoscale by means of Amplitude Modulation Electrostatic Force Microscopy (AM-EFM). The proposed experimental method is based on the measurement of the tip–sample force via the detection of the second harmonic component of the photosensor signal(More)