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The particulate scattering, b p , and backscatter-ing, b bp , coefficients are determined by the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the scattering of light within the water column. For the remote observation of ocean color, b bp along with the(More)
Using a fluorescence-based method, we have determined the number of thiol-derivatized single-stranded oligonucleotides bound to gold nanoparticles and their extent of hybridization with complementary oligonucleotides in solution. Oligonucleotide surface coverages of hexanethiol 12-mer oligonucleotides on gold nanoparticles (34 +/- 1 pmol/cm2) were(More)
Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt(More)
A computer algorithm to display radiation beams superimposed on three-dimensional (3-D) views of patient anatomy has been developed. It may be implemented as a postprocessing step to existing software for 3-D presentation and display. The algorithm takes as input a shaded 3-D view (reconstructed, for example, from computed tomography scans), together with(More)
In the Arctic Ocean, phytoplankton blooms on continental shelves are often limited by light availability, and are therefore thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. During July 2011 in the Chukchi Sea, a large phytoplankton bloom was observed beneath fully consolidated pack ice and extended from the ice edge to 4100 km into the pack. The bloom(More)