R. Andy Russell

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Human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) inhibit replication of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Vif overcomes these host restriction factors by binding to them and inducing their proteasomal degradation. The Vif-A3G and Vif-A3F interactions are attractive targets for antiviral drug development because(More)
Human APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) inhibit the replication of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Vif overcomes these host restriction factors by binding to them and inducing their degradation. Thus, the Vif-A3G and Vif-A3F interactions are attractive targets for antiviral drug development, as inhibiting these interactions(More)
Foamy viruses are a family of complex retroviruses that establish common, productive infections in a wide range of nonhuman primates. In contrast, humans appear nonpermissive for foamy virus replication, although zoonotic infections do occur. Here we have analyzed the ability of primate and mouse APOBEC3G proteins to inhibit the infectivity of primate foamy(More)
The role of APOBEC3 (A3) protein family members in inhibiting retrovirus infection and mobile element retrotransposition is well established. However, the evolutionary effects these restriction factors may have had on active retroviruses such as HIV-1 are less well understood. An HIV-1 variant that has been highly G-to-A mutated is unlikely to be(More)
Naturally occurring Vif variants that are unable to inhibit the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) have been isolated from infected individuals. A3G can potentially induce G-to-A hypermutation in these viruses, and hypermutation could contribute to genetic variation in HIV-1 populations through recombination between hypermutant and wild-type genomes.(More)
The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are part of the intrinsic defense of cells against retroviruses. Lentiviruses and spumaviruses have evolved essential accessory proteins, Vif and Bet, respectively, which counteract the APOBEC3 proteins. We show here that Bet of the Prototype foamy virus inhibits the antiviral APOBEC3C activity by a mechanism distinct to Vif:(More)
HIV-1 can move directly between T cells via virological synapses (VS). Although aspects of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this mode of spread have been elucidated, the outcomes for infection of the target cell remain incompletely understood. We set out to determine whether HIV-1 transfer via VS results in productive, high-multiplicity(More)
BACKGROUND There has been much research into the use of RNA interference (RNAi) for the treatment of human diseases. Many viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), are susceptible to inhibition by this mechanism. However, for RNAi to be effective therapeutically, a suitable delivery system is required. METHODS Here we identify an RNAi sequence active(More)
OBJECTIVE Few studies have examined the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the context of cell-to-cell transmission. We aimed to determine whether the activity of ART is limited by the mode of HIV-1 spread between cells and the type of immune cell implicated in transmission, or is independent of these variables. DESIGN ART activity was evaluated(More)
The continued discovery and development of adjuvants for vaccine formulation are important to safely increase potency and/or reduce the antigen doses of existing vaccines and tailor the adaptive immune response to newly developed vaccines. Adjuplex is a novel adjuvant platform based on a purified lecithin and carbomer homopolymer. Here, we analyzed the(More)