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By comparing the isotopic composition of tissues deposited at different times, we can identify individuals that shift diets over time and individuals with constant diets. We define an individual as an isotopic specialist if tissues deposited at different times have similar isotopic composition. If tissues deposited at different times differ in isotopic(More)
Understanding rates of isotopic incorporation and discrimination factors between tissues and diet is an important focus of ecologists seeking to use stable isotopes to track temporal changes in diet. We used a diet-shift experiment to measure differences among tissues in (13)C incorporation rates in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We predicted faster(More)
Ecologists conduct isotopic incorporation experiments to determine the residence time of various stable isotopes in animal tissues. These experiments permit determining the time window through which isotopic ecologists perceive the course of diet changes, and therefore the scale of the inferences that we can make from isotopic data. Until recently, the(More)
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate(More)
Following Martin [Martin PS (1973) Science 179:969-974], we propose the hypothesis that the timing of human arrival to the New World can be assessed by examining the ecological impacts of a small population of people on extinct Pleistocene megafauna. To that end, we compiled lists of direct radiocarbon dates on paleontological specimens of extinct genera(More)
Proper application of statistical principles at the onset of an environmental study can make the difference between an effective, efficient study and wasted resources. This review distills some of the thoughts current among environmental scientists from a variety of backgrounds and organizes them according to statistical principles. Collection and review of(More)
This is a brief communication about mucosal change in ileal urinary reservoirs, the earliest reported observations to date. Previous authors described early villous atrophy and crypt elongation, late panmucosal atrophy and metaplasia. Crypt cell proliferation should be a forerunner of these events and therefore warrants quantitative measurement. We studied(More)
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the U.S. DOT's University Transportation Program through the Mountain-Plains Consortium, and the University of Wyoming for providing the funding for this cooperative study. I would also like to thank Dr. Khaled Ksaibati, for his undying patience with me as I completed this research project. Dr. Ksaibati provided support(More)
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