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INTRODUCTION Host immunity should play a principal role in determining both the outcome and recovery of patients with sepsis that originated from a microbial infection. Quantification of the levels of key elements of the immune response could have a prognostic value in this disease. METHODS In an attempt to evaluate the quantitative changes in the status(More)
Hepatitis C virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The infection induces up-regulation of cytokine and chemokines commonly linked to the development of cellular and pro-inflammatory antiviral responses. The current standard in hepatitis C treatment consists of combination regimens of pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin. The impact(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with severe sepsis and mortality after major surgery. METHODS We performed a case-control study on 240 cardiac or abdominal surgery patients developing severe sepsis (Case-group) and 267 cardiac or abdominal surgery patients without severe sepsis and with systemic(More)
OBJECTIVES Immunological dysregulation is now recognised as a major pathogenic event in sepsis. Stimulation of immune response and immuno-modulation are emerging approaches for the treatment of this disease. Defining the underlying immunological alterations in sepsis is important for the design of future therapies with immuno-modulatory drugs. METHODS(More)
INTRODUCTION Human host immune response following infection with the new variant of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nvH1N1) is poorly understood. We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1. METHODS We profiled 29 cytokines and chemokines(More)
The relationships between cytokine responses in septic shock are currently poorly understood. Some studies have pointed to a biphasic model, with an initial proinflammatory phase, followed by a reactive, anti-inflammatory response to explain the pathogenesis of the most severe form of sepsis. However, evidence for the coexistence of both responses has been(More)
Identification of patients at increased risk of death is dramatically important in severe sepsis. Cytokines have been widely assessed as potential biomarkers in this disease, but none of the cytokines studied has evidenced a sufficient specificity or sensitivity to be routinely employed in clinical practice. In this pilot study, we profiled 17 immune(More)
Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) is currently a dominant circulating influenza strain worldwide. Severe cases of H1N1pdm infection are characterized by prolonged activation of the immune response, yet the specific role of inflammatory mediators in disease is poorly understood. The inflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been implicated in both seasonal and severe(More)
Diagnostic methods based upon exclusive detection of haemagglutinin do not detect sequence variation in other gene segments of the Influenza A virus. A complementary approach is described based upon high-resolution melting curve analysis of the neuraminidase gene, an approach with the potential ability to detect small changes in the neuraminidase sequence(More)
INTRODUCTION Pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza causes severe lower respiratory complications in rare cases. The association between host immune responses and clinical outcome in severe cases is unknown. METHODS We utilized gene expression, cytokine profiles and generation of antibody responses following hospitalization in 19 critically ill patients with(More)