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INTRODUCTION Host immunity should play a principal role in determining both the outcome and recovery of patients with sepsis that originated from a microbial infection. Quantification of the levels of key elements of the immune response could have a prognostic value in this disease. METHODS In an attempt to evaluate the quantitative changes in the status(More)
INTRODUCTION Human host immune response following infection with the new variant of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nvH1N1) is poorly understood. We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1. METHODS We profiled 29 cytokines and chemokines(More)
INTRODUCTION Pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza causes severe lower respiratory complications in rare cases. The association between host immune responses and clinical outcome in severe cases is unknown. METHODS We utilized gene expression, cytokine profiles and generation of antibody responses following hospitalization in 19 critically ill patients with(More)
Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) is currently a dominant circulating influenza strain worldwide. Severe cases of H1N1pdm infection are characterized by prolonged activation of the immune response, yet the specific role of inflammatory mediators in disease is poorly understood. The inflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been implicated in both seasonal and severe(More)
BACKGROUND Severe disease caused by 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1virus is characterized by the presence of hypercytokinemia. The origin of the exacerbated cytokine response is unclear. As observed previously, uncontrolled influenza virus replication could strongly influence cytokine production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the(More)
Evaluation of host immune response to infection at the molecular level is a promising avenue to obtain diagnostic and prognostic tools for the clinical management of patients with sepsis. A recent report from Cajander and colleagues [1] has shown the potential of HLA-DR mRNA quantification by real-time PCR as a biomarker of immunosuppression in these(More)
The clinical, human and economic burden associated with sepsis is huge. Initiatives such as the Surviving Sepsis Campaign aim to effectively reduce risk of death from severe sepsis and septic shock. Nonetheless, although substantial benefits raised from the implementation of this campaign have been obtained, much work remains if we are to realise the full(More)
Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) have not yet demonstrated robust evidence in the benefit for treatment of sepsis. In spite of multiple clinical trials performed with IVIG in sepsis, it remains an experimental therapy for this severe condition. Nonetheless, these trials do not address a number of potential confounding factors, concerning both the patient(More)
Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of(More)
Gene expression profiling (GEP) in cells obtained from peripheral blood has shown that this is a very useful approach for biomarker discovery and for studying molecular pathogenesis of prevalent diseases. While there is limited literature available on gene expression markers associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the transcriptomic(More)