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P2X receptors are membrane ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular ATP. Seven genes in vertebrates encode P2X receptor subunits, which are 40-50% identical in amino acid sequence. Each subunit has two transmembrane domains, separated by an extracellular domain (approximately 280 amino acids). Channels form as multimers of several(More)
Increased activity of dopamine-containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area is necessary for the reinforcing effects of opioids and other abused drugs. Intracellular recordings from these cells in slices of rat brain in vitro showed that opioids do not affect the principal (dopamine-containing) neurons but hyperpolarize secondary (GABA-containing)(More)
The P2Z receptor is responsible for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent lysis of macrophages through the formation of membrane pores permeable to large molecules. Other ATP-gated channels, the P2X receptors, are permeable only to small cations. Here, an ATP receptor, the P2X7 receptor, was cloned from rat brain and exhibited both these properties. This(More)
Two new P2X receptor cDNAs (P2X5 and P2X6) were isolated and expressed. All six proteins are 36-48 percent identical and seem to have two transmembrane segments with a large extracellular loop. Functionally, P2X5 and P2X6 receptors most resemble P2X2 and P2X4; they desensitize only slowly and do not respond to alpha beta methylene-ATP. P2X6 receptors, like(More)
1. Intracellular recordings were made from 241 ventral tegmental neurones in slices of rat midbrain. Seventy-seven per cent of neurones were hyperpolarized by dopamine (principal cells); 16% were hyperpolarized by opioid peptides (secondary cells). 2. Most principal cells fired spontaneously (1-3 Hz) with a threshold of -53 mV; most secondary cells did not(More)
Cation-selective P2X receptor channels were first described in sensory neurons where they are important for primary afferent neurotransmission and nociception. Here we report the cloning of a complementary DNA (P2X3) from rat dorsal root ganglia that had properties dissimilar to those of sensory neurons. We also found RNA for (P2X1)(ref. 7), (P2X2)(ref. 8)(More)
There are currently seven P2X receptor subunits (P2X1-7) defined by molecular cloning. The functional identification of these receptors has relied primarily on the potency of alpha,beta-methylene-ATP relative to that of ATP and on the kinetics of receptor desensitization. In the present experiments we found that the 2',(More)
A cDNA was cloned which encodes a new ATP-gated ion channel (P2X4 receptor). ATP induces a cationic current in HEK293 cells transfected with the P2X4 receptor. However, the current is almost completely insensitive to antagonists effective at other P2X receptors. Sensitivity to two of these antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid(More)
There are seven P2X receptor cDNAs currently known. Six homomeric (P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, P2X5, P2X7) and three heteromeric (P2X2/P2X3, P2X4/P2X6, P2X1/P2X5) P2X receptor channels have been characterized in heterologous expression systems. Homomeric P2X1 and P2X3 receptors are readily distinguishable by their rapid desensitization, the agonist action of(More)
There are few antagonists selective for subtypes of the several P2X receptors, but these are needed to identify the receptors expressed on native cells and tissues. In particular, P2X(4) and P2X(7) receptor subunits are colocalized on immune, epithelial, and exocrine gland cells, but both are relatively insensitive to suramin and(More)