R. A. Westerman

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1. The neurophysiological basis for the sensation of prickle evoked by contact of some fabrics with the skin is reported. 2. Single-unit sensory nerve recordings from the rabbit saphenous nerve were used to identify the receptors responsible for fabric-evoked prickle. These recordings showed that all low-threshold mechanoreceptors were activated by fabric,(More)
1. Isometric contractions of kitten soleus and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscles have been examined for evidence of polyneuronal innervation. The sum of tetanic tensions of two almost equal divisions of the ventral roots was greater than the tetanic tension elicited by stimulating both the divisions simultaneously. The difference was large in kittens(More)
1. Electrical activity and length of ankle muscles were recorded by telemetry during free fall and landing in cats. 2. After foot contact, there was a delay in onset of stretch of ankle extensors of between 8 and 11 ms. High-speed cinematography showed the delay to be associated with rapid initial dorsiflexion of the toes. 3. Electromyograms (e.m.g.) from(More)
1. Recordings were made from forty-two muscle spindle afferents from the pre-tibial muscles of human subjects. For each afferent, the contraction level at which its discharge accelerated (its 'threshold for activation') was defined using isometric voluntary contractions of the receptor-bearing muscle. The effects on these thresholds of various manoeuvres(More)
This study was designed to assess the quantitative features of the skin protecting mechanism of axon reflexes by monitoring stimulus related changes in skin blood flow using laser Doppler flowmetry. Skin vasodilatation induced by trains of brief transcutaneous electrical pulses (0.5 ms, 150 V) was strictly related in magnitude to the number of pulses(More)
1. Isosmetric contractions of cat flexor digitorum longus whole muscles and of functionally isolated motor units have been measured under conditions similar to those used by Buller & Lewis (1965a).2. Motor unit twitch time to peak was inversely related to axonal conduction velocity. The logarithm of tetanic tension was directly related to conduction(More)
1. Implanted semimicroelectrodes were used to record single afferent fiber discharges from L7 dorsal roots during unrestrained walking in the conscious cat. 2. A series of tests were used to identify an afferent during a short period of anesthesia following each recording session. The majority of afferents were from muscle spindle primary endings in(More)
1. Multi-unit and single-unit recordings were made of muscle spindle afferent activity from the pretibial muscles of human subjects who were initially relaxed. The muscles were subjected to a stretching perturbation of 1 s duration, occurring irregularly, on average once every 5 s. In test sequences, an auditory or visual warning was provided 1 . 06 s(More)
The known association between smoking cessation and weight gain, and the suggested role of leptin in the control of body weight, led to the present study which examined the association between smoking and serum leptin concentrations. Mean serum leptin levels, independent of body mass index (BMI), were calculated in male smokers and non-smokers from Nauru,(More)