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For survival, embryonic motoneurons in vertebrates depend on as yet undefined neurotrophic factors present in the limb bud. Members of the neurotrophin family are currently the best candidates for such neurotrophic factors, but inactivation of their receptor genes leads to only partial loss of motoneurons, which suggests that other factors are involved.(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent effects on survival and function of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in a variety of models. Although other growth factors expressed in the vicinity of developing DA neurons have been reported to support survival of DA neurons in vitro, to date none of these factors duplicate the potent(More)
Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in culture, and its expression pattern suggests a role as a transient target-derived trophic factor for dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. These neurons participate in the control of motor activity, emotional status and cognition, and they(More)
IL-18, or IGIF (interferon-gamma inducing factor), is an IL-1-related, pro-inflammatory cytokine, which plays a pivotal role in systemic and local inflammation. We have identified and characterized IL-1H, a novel IL-1-related molecule. IL-1H appears to be expressed in most tissues with relatively high levels in testis, thymus and uterus. The IL-1H(More)
Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are two structurally related, potent survival factors for sympathetic, sensory and central nervous system neurons. GDNF mediates its actions through a multicomponent receptor system composed of a ligand-binding glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein (designated GDNFR-alpha)(More)
We have studied the effect of human recombinant neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) on the survival of developing PNS neurons from embryonic mice and chickens. NT-4/5 transiently supported mouse NGF-dependent trigeminal and jugular neurons at early stages of target field innervation and mouse brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent no-dose neurons during(More)
Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for central and peripheral neurons, and is essential for the development of kidneys and the enteric nervous system. Despite the potential clinical and physiological importance of GDNF, its mechanism of action is unknown. Here we show that physiological responses to GDNF require(More)
The major, and possible only, component of the infectious prion is the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc); the protease resistant core of PrPSc is PrP 27-30, a protein of approximately 142 amino acids. PrPSc is derived from the cellular PrP isoform (PrPC) by a post-transliatonal process in which a profound conformational change occurs. Syrian hamster (SHa) PrP(More)
Extracts from weanling pig liver were found to act synergistically with growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha to stimulate hepatocyte growth in serum-free cultures. In the absence of added growth factors, the extracts had no activity. The compound responsible for this activity was isolated by passing(More)
Relaxin, a polypeptide hormone normally associated with pregnancy, has been purified from many species, and the sequence determined for a growing number. Equine relaxin has been previously purified by acetone extraction, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. In an attempt to develop a more rapid and efficient method for relaxin purification,(More)